Professor David Ray

Photograph of David Ray

Professor of Medicine and Endocrinology

Centre for Endocrinology and Diabetes
AV Hill Building
Oxford Road
M13 9PT


Professor of medicine and endocrinology

Honorary consultant in endocrinology at Manchester Royal Infirmary

Deputy editor, Journal of Endocrinology

Deputy Chair, MRC Clinical Research Training Fellowship Panel

General Secretary, Society for Endocrinology

Memberships of Committees and Professional Bodies

Society for Endocrinology

Endocrine Society

British Medical Association

Royal College of Physicians of London


My research aims to discover how circadian timing mechanisms affect inflammation, and immunity and the role of nuclear receptors to mediating this communication.

I came to this from studying how glucocorticoid signalling regulates immunity and inflammation. I worked on glucocorticoid sensitivity in human small cell lung cancer, and discovered the underlying mechanism explaining ectopic ACTH secretion. This led to analysis of immune system cross-talk with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which identified the role of intrapituitary cytokine expression, and action.

I returned to Manchester as a clinical lecturer, and moved to define structure-activity relations for synthetic glucocorticoid. This led to the first publication of a model for the ligand binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor, which was later validated by crystallography. I reported on the GRgamma isoform, as a constitutive splice variant, with distinct properties. I went on to discover the mechanism explaining production of the isoform, and to show that this is conserved through mammalian evolution.

I extended my interest to include circadian timing mechanisms as it became clear that glucocorticoids serve as a major timing signal, by regulating PER1 expression. Moreover, working with Andrew Loudon, we discovered that timing cells in the lung were enriched for glucocorticoid receptor expression.

Variation in glucocortiocid sensitivity is a major issue in human healthcare, with huge annual usage of glucocorticoid drugs to treat lung disease. I have led a discovery programme to find mechanisms explaining such variation in sensitivity. This programme of work has identified cave-in (highly enriched in the lung), MERM1 (a methyltransferase with very high expression in bronchial epithelium), PIN1 (an isomerase with selective action of GR transactivation), and BMPRII (a transmembrane receptor genetically linked to primary pulmonary hypertension).

My interest in glucocortiocid action, and expertise in structure:activity modelling and experimental validation led to a drug discovery programme which has resulted in world-wide patent protection for a series of synthetic steroids with selective glucocorticoid action, SEGRA molecules. This programme was funded by a Wellcome Trust SDDI award.

My interests in nuclear receptor function naturally led to a programme identifying synthetic ligands for NR1D1 (REVERBa). We published the first such molecules, and have gone on to find both agonist and antagonist ligands. We are pursuing the mechanisms of action now, with a view to obtaining appropriate probes for in-vivo testing in lung inflammation (current molecules lack potency, and have undesirable PK properties).

With Andrew Loudon I have led a programme studying circadian control of macrophage function, and more recently circadian regulation of pulmonary immunity. In this latter programme we have discovered the key timing cells in the lung, and shown that the circadian clock regulates inflammation in part through epigenetic regulation of glucocorticoid receptor function in the lung.


Supervisor for Current Students:

2005-           Ms Laura Robinson

PhD (University of Manchester) - Funded by University of Manchester

2006-             Mr Stephen Beesley

PhD (University of Manchester) - Funded by BBSRC CASE award

2007-          Dr Ilias Perogamvros

PhD (University of Manchester) - Funded by Onassis Foundation

2007-             Dr John Blaikley

PhD (University of Manchester) - MRC Clinical Research Training Fellowship

2008 -            Maryam Jangani

PhD (University of Manchester) - NIHR Manchester Biomedical Research Centre

2009 -            Peter Trebble

PhD (University of Manchester) - GSK CASE

2009 -            Sarah Otto

PhD (University of Manchester) - GSK CASE

2010 -            Seamus Grundy

PhD (University of Manchester) - Wellcome Trust clinical research training fellowship

2010 -           John Raynolds

MPhil (University of Manchester) - NIHR Manchester Biomedical Research Centre

Past students:

1999 - 2002  Dr Charlotte Waters

PhD (University of Manchester) - Funded by BBSRC, currently post-doc, King's College, London

2002 - 2003  Dr Xaiojing Pan

PhD (University of Manchester) - Funded by ORS and URS awards, currently post-doct, University of Minnesota, USA

2002 - 2003 Dr Helen J Garside

PhD (University of Manchester) - Funded by BBSRC CASE award, currently post-doc, AstraZeneca

2000 - 2003 Ms Elaine Gill

PhD (University of Manchester) - Joint supervisor with Dr Simon Luckman, Biological Sciences, University of Manchester. Currently post-doct, University of Liverpool

2001- 2005  Dr Zaynab Alourfi

PhD (University of Manchester) - Funded by the Syrian Government

2002- 2005  Ms Lisa Rice

PhD (University of Manchester) - Funded by the BBSRC

2003 - 2007  Ms Elaine Beaulieu

PhD (University of Manchester) - Funded by Frederick Craven bequest

2005 - 2007  Mr Andrew McMaster

PhD (University of Manchester) - Funded by the arc

2005 - 2008  Mr Andrew Berry

PhD (University of Manchester) - Funded by University of Manchester

2006 - 2010  Mr Paul Kay

PhD (University of Manchester) - MRC quota studentship


Graduated in medicine, University of Manchester, in 1987.

Trained in general internal medicine and endocrinology in the North West of England.

PhD University of Manchester in 1994

Post doctoral work at UCLA 1994-1996

GSK fellow University of Manchester, then lecturer, senior lecturer and professor in 2005



MB ChB Manchester

PhD Manchester

FRCP Royal College of Physicians

Collaborators and affiliated staff

I have established an independent research group that now comprises:

  • Dr Philippe LeRouzec (Research Associate)
  • Dr Midori Kayahara (Research Associate)
  • Dr Helen Attisha (Research Associate)
  • Dr Laura Elsby (Research Associate)
  • Miss Helen Gillingham (Research Assistant)
  • Mr Andrew McMaster (Research Assistant)
  • Mr Stuart Ellison (Research Assistant)
  • Miss Elaine Beaulieu (PhD student)
  • Miss Lisa Rice (PhD student)
  • Dr Zaynab Alourfi (PhD student)
  • Mr Andrew Berry (Research Technician)

Major Active Collaborations:

Hypothalamic-pituitary axis and stress

Prof Francis Creed, Prof Gary MacFarlane, Prof Alan Silman; Psychiatry and arc epidemiology units, University of Manchester

Prof CEM Griffiths; Academic Dermatology Unit, University of Manchester  

Glucocorticoid action in inflammatory disease

Dr Rachelle Donn, arc epidemiology unit, University of Manchester

Dr Stuart Farrow and Dr Barbara Maschera, Glaxo SmithKline, Asthma Cell Biology, Stevenage, UK

Prof Ashley Woodcock, Dr Dave Singh, NorthWest Regional Lung Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital, and Medical School, University of Manchester.

Prof Michael White, Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool

Glucocorticoid sensitivity

Dr Michael Norman, School of Medicine, University of Bristol

Dr Julie B Stimmel, GSK, North Carolina, USA

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor

Dr Rachelle Donn, arc epidemiology unit, University of Manchester

Prof Simon Gaskell, Department of Chemistry, University of Manchester.

Dr Keith Ray, GSK, Stevenage, UK

Retroviral gene delivery

Dr Jim Freeth, Astra-Zeneca, Alderley Park, UK

Diabetic retinal disease

Dr Paul Bishop, Wellcome Trust Senior Fellow, Biological Sciences, University of Manchester

Dr Rachelle Donn, ARC epidemiology unit, University of Manchester

Dr J Martin Gibson, Consultant in diabetes, Salford Royal Hospitals, Manchester

Dr Graham Leese, Consultant in Diabetes, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee.

Orphan nuclear receptors in human inflammatory disease

Dr Antonio Castrillo, UCLA, Los Angeles, USA

Dr Stuart Farrow, GSK, Stevenage, UK



  • Caratti, G., Matthews, L., Poolman, T., Kershaw, S., Baxter, M. & Ray, D (2015). Glucocorticoid receptor function in health and disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 83(4), 441-8. eScholarID:278076 | PMID:25627931 | DOI:10.1111/cen.12728
  • Khanna, A., Khurana, R., Kyriacou, A., Davies, R. & Ray, D (2015). Management of adrenocortical insufficiency with continuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusion: long-term experience in three patients. Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep, 2015, 150005. eScholarID:278079 | PMID:26124953 | DOI:10.1530/EDM-15-0005
  • Matthews, L., Berry, A., Morgan, D., Poolman, T., Bauer, K., Kramer, F., Spiller, D., Richardson, R., Chapman, K., Farrow, S., Norman, M., Williamson, A., Whetton, A., Taylor, S., Tuckermann, J., White, M. & Ray, D (2015). Glucocorticoid receptor regulates accurate chromosome segregation and is associated with malignancy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 112(17), 5479-84. eScholarID:278075 | PMID:25847991 | DOI:10.1073/pnas.1411356112
  • Reynolds, J., Ray, D., Alexander, M. & Bruce, I (2015). Role of vitamin D in endothelial function and endothelial repair in clinically stable systemic lupus erythematosus. Lancet, 385 Suppl 1, S83. eScholarID:278080 | PMID:26312905 | DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60398-1
  • Rutkowski, D., Syed, F., Matthews, L., Ray, D., McGrouther, D., Watson, R. & Bayat, A (2015). An abnormality in glucocorticoid receptor expression differentiates steroid responders from nonresponders in keloid disease. Br J Dermatol, 173(3), 690-700. eScholarID:278078 | PMID:25712143 | DOI:10.1111/bjd.13752


  • Durrington HJ, Farrow SN, Loudon AS, Ray DW. (2014). The circadian clock and asthma. Thorax, 69, 90-92. eScholarID:241008 | DOI:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2013-203482
  • Gibbs J, Ince L, Matthews L, Mei J, Bell T, Yang N, Saer B, Begley N, Poolman T, Pariollaud M, Farrow S, DeMayo F, Hussell T, Worthen GS, Ray D, Loudon A. (2014). An epithelial circadian clock controls pulmonary inflammation and glucocorticoid action. N M, 20, 919-926. eScholarID:241026 | DOI:10.1038/nm.3599
  • Grundy S, Kaur M, Plumb J, Reynolds S, Hall S, House D, Begg M, Ray D, Singh D. (2014). CRAC channel inhibition produces greater anti-inflammatory effects than glucocorticoids in CD8 cells from COPD patients. Clin Sci (Lond), 126, 223-232. eScholarID:241014 | DOI:10.1042/CS20130152
  • Hand LE, Usan P, Cooper GJ, Xu LY, Ammori B, Cunningham PS, Aghamohammadzadeh R, Soran H, Greenstein A, Loudon AS, Bechtold DA, Ray DW. (2014). Adiponectin Induces A20 Expression in Adipose Tissue To Confer Metabolic Benefit. Diabetes, 2014(Sep 4. pii: DB_131835. [Epub ahead of print]), eScholarID:241024
  • Higham A, Lea S, Ray D, Singh D. (2014). Corticosteroid effects on COPD alveolar macrophages: dependency on cell culture methodology. J Immunol Methods, 405, 144-153. eScholarID:241017 | DOI:10.1016/j.jim.2014.02.003
  • Higham, A., Lea, S., Ray, D. & Singh, D (2014). Corticosteroid effects on COPD alveolar macrophages: dependency on cell culture methodology. J Immunol Methods, 405, 144-53. eScholarID:278074 | PMID:24530567 | DOI:10.1016/j.jim.2014.02.003
  • Jangani M, Poolman TM, Matthews L, Yang N, Farrow SN, Berry A, Hanley N, Williamson AJ, Whetton AD, Donn R, Ray DW. (2014). The methyltransferase WBSCR22/Merm1 enhances glucocorticoid receptor function and is regulated in lung inflammation and cancer. J Biol Chem, 289, 8931-8946. eScholarID:241016 | DOI:10.1074/jbc.M113.540906
  • Reynolds JA, Ray DW, Zeef LA, O'Neill T, Bruce IN, Alexander MY. (2014). The effect of type 1 IFN on human aortic endothelial cell function in vitro: relevance to systemic lupus erythematosus. J I C R, 34, 404-412. eScholarID:241015 | DOI:10.1074/jbc.M113.540906
  • Reynolds, J., Ray, D., Zeef, L., O'Neill, T., Bruce, I. & Alexander, M (2014). The effect of type 1 IFN on human aortic endothelial cell function in vitro: relevance to systemic lupus erythematosus. J Interferon Cytokine Res, 34(5), 404-12. eScholarID:278083 | PMID:24444308 | DOI:10.1089/jir.2013.0016
  • Singh N, Taylor K, Mjoli PB, Poolman T, Ray DW, Sommer P. (2014). The N-terminal transactivation domain of the glucocorticoid receptor mediates apoptosis of human small cell lung cancer cells. Genes Chromosomes Cancer, 53, 999-1007. eScholarID:241018 | DOI:10.1002/gcc.22209
  • Yang N, Caratti G, Ince LM, Poolman TM, Trebble PJ, Holt CM, Ray DW, Matthews LC. (2014). Serum cholesterol selectively regulates glucocorticoid sensitivity through activation of JNK. J Endocrinol, 223, 155-166. eScholarID:241023 | DOI:10.1530/JOE-14-0456
  • Yang, N., Caratti, G., Ince, L., Poolman, T., Trebble, P., Holt, C., Ray, D. & Matthews, L (2014). Serum cholesterol selectively regulates glucocorticoid sensitivity through activation of JNK. J Endocrinol, 223(2), 155-66. eScholarID:278081 | PMID:25161081 | DOI:10.1530/JOE-14-0456


  • Gibbs JE, Ray DW. (2013). The role of the circadian clock in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther, 15(1), 205-205. eScholarID:241012 | DOI:10.1186/ar4146
  • Green L, Cookson A, Bruce IN, Donn RP, Ray DW. (2013). Identification of multiple, oxygen-stable HIF1 alpha isoforms, and augmented expression of adrenomedullin in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol, 31, 672-6. eScholarID:241351
  • Grundy S, Plumb J, Lea S, Kaur M, Ray D, Singh D. (2013). Down regulation of T cell receptor expression in COPD pulmonary CD8 cells. PLoS One, 8, e71629-e71629. eScholarID:241344 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0071629
  • Higham, A., Lea, S., Plumb, J., Maschera, B., Simpson, K., Ray, D. & Singh, D (2013). The role of the liver X receptor in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respir Res, 14, 106. eScholarID:278082 | PMID:24118845 | DOI:10.1186/1465-9921-14-106
  • Kay P, Schlossmacher G, Matthews L, Sommer P, Singh D, White A, Ray D. (2013). Correction: Loss of Glucocorticoid Receptor Expression by DNA Methylation Prevents Glucocorticoid Induced Apoptosis in Human Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells. PLoS One, 8(8), eScholarID:241342 | DOI:10.1371/annotation/4aad3313-abac-404f-85b0-3b95aec89be4
  • Movahedi M, Lunt M, Ray D, Dixon W. (2013). Oral glucocorticoids and the risk of incident type II diabetes mellitus in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, a retrospective cohort study. P D S, 22, 362-362. eScholarID:241029
  • Movahedi M, Lunt M, Ray DW, Dixon WG. (2013). Oral glucocorticoids and the risk of incident type ii diabetes mellitus in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford), 52, 80-81. eScholarID:133098 | PMID:21984896
  • Pierce A, Williamson A, Jaworska E, Griffiths JR, Taylor S, Walker M, O’Dea MA, Spooncer E, Unwin RD, Poolman T, Ray D, Whetton AD. (2013). Correction: Identification of Nuclear Protein Targets for Six Leukemogenic Tyrosine Kinases Governed by Post-Translational Regulation. PLoS One, 8(6), eScholarID:241341 | DOI:10.1371/annotation/df82a4c0-2909-43a0-8a7f-5bd2ce9ca0bd. O'Dea, Mark Aspinall [corrected to Aspinall-O'Dea, Mark]
  • Plumb J, Robinson L, Lea S, Banyard A, Blaikley J, Ray D, Bizzi A, Volpi G, Facchinetti F, Singh D. (2013). Evaluation of glucocorticoid receptor function in COPD lung macrophages using beclomethasone-17-monopropionate. PLoS One, 8, e64257-e64257. eScholarID:241345 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0064257
  • Poolman TM, Farrow SN, Matthews L, Loudon AS, Ray DW. (2013). Pin1 promotes GR transactivation by enhancing recruitment to target genes. Nucleic Acids Research, 41(18), 8518-8525. eScholarID:208242 | DOI:10.1093/nar/gkt624
  • Trebble PJ, Woolven JM, Saunders KA, Simpson KD, Farrow SN, Matthews LC, Ray DW. (2013). A ligand-specific kinetic switch regulates glucocorticoid receptor trafficking and function. J Cell Sci, 126(Pt 14), 3159-69. eScholarID:208241 | DOI:10.1242/jcs.124784
  • Trump RP, Bresciani S, Cooper AW, Tellam JP, Wojno J, Blaikley J, Orband-Miller LA, Kashatus JA, Boudjelal M, Dawson HC, Loudon A, Ray D, Grant D, Farrow SN, Willson TM, Tomkinson NC. (2013). Optimized chemical probes for REV-ERBα. J Med Chem, 56(11), 4729-4737. eScholarID:241352 | DOI:10.1021/jm400458q


  • Dixon WG, Abrahomowicz M, Beauchamp ME, Ray DW, Bernatsky S, Suissa S, Sylvestre MP. (2012). Immediate and delayed impact of oral glucocorticoid therapy on risk of serious infection in older patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A nested case-control analysis. Annals of Rheumatic Diseases, Online, eScholarID:162645
  • Duru N, van der Goes MC, Jacobs JW, Andrews T, Boers M, Buttgereit F, Caeyers N, Cutolo M, Halliday S, da Silva JA, Kirwan JR, Ray D, Rovensky J, Severijns G, Westhovens R, Bijlsma JW. (2012). EULAR evidence-based recommendations on the management of medium to high dose systemic glucocorticoid therapy in rheumatic diseases. A R D, 71, 54-54. eScholarID:241468
  • Gibbs JE, Blaikley J, Beesley S, Matthews L, Simpson KD, Boyce SH, Farrow SN, Else KJ, Singh D, Ray DW, Loudon AS. (2012). The nuclear receptor REV-ERBα mediates circadian regulation of innate immunity through selective regulation of inflammatory cytokines. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(2), 582-587. eScholarID:162412 | DOI:10.1073/pnas.1106750109
  • Perogamvros I, Ray DW, Trainer PJ. (2012). Regulation of cortisol bioavailability-effects on hormone measurement and action. Nat Rev Endocrinol, 8(12), 717-727. eScholarID:241009 | DOI:10.1038/nrendo.2012.134
  • Pierce A, Williamson A, Jaworska E, Griffiths JR, Taylor S, Walker M, Aspinall-O'Dea MA, Spooncer E, Unwin RD, Poolman T, Ray D, Whetton AD. (2012). Identification of nuclear protein targets for six leukemogenic tyrosine kinases governed by post-translational regulation. PLoS One, 7, e38928-e38928. eScholarID:241471
  • Plumb J, Gaffey K, Kane B, Malia-Milanes B, Shah R, Bentley A, Ray D, Singh D. (2012). Reduced glucocorticoid receptor expression and function in airway neutrophils. Int Immunopharmacol, 12, 26-33. eScholarID:241469
  • Yang N, Ray D, Matthews L. (2012). Current concepts in glucocorticoid resistance. Steroids, 77, 1041-1049. eScholarID:241011 | DOI:10.1016/j.steroids.2012.05.007


  • Ray DW. (2011). Part 11 Endocrinology of Cancer. In Wass JAH and Stewart PM (Ed.), Oxford UK: Oxford University Press. eScholarID:240864
  • Beaulieu E, Green L, Elsby L, Alourfi Z, Morand EF, Ray DW, Donn R. (2011). Identification of a novel cell type-specific intronic enhacer of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and its regulation by mithramycin. Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 163(2), 178-188. eScholarID:162640 | DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2249.2010.04289.x
  • Clark AJ, Ray DW. (2011). Thematic reviews. Journal of Endocardiology, 209, 257-257. eScholarID:241013
  • Matthews, L., Johnson, J., Berry, A., Trebble, P., Cookson, A., Spiller, D., Rivers, C., Norman, M., White, M. & Ray, D (2011). Cell cycle phase regulates glucocorticoid receptor function. PLoS One, 6(7), e22289. eScholarID:133077 | PMID:21829454 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0022289
  • McMaster, A., Jangani, M., Sommer, P., Han, N., Brass, A., Beesley, S., Lu, W., Berry, A., Loudon, A., Donn, R. & Ray, D (2011). Ultradian cortisol pulsatility encodes a distinct, biologically important signal. PLoS One, 6(1), e15766. eScholarID:133102 | PMID:21267416 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0015766
  • Newman WG, Payne K, Tricker K, Roberts SA, Fargher E, Pushpakom S, Alder JE, Sidgwick GP, Payne D, Elliott RA, Heise M, Elles R, Ramsden SC, Andrews J, Houston JB, Qasim F, Shaffer J, Griffiths CE, Ray DW, Bruce I, Ollier WE; TARGET study recruitment team. (2011). A pragmatic randomized controlled trial of thiopurine methyltransferase genotyping prior to azathioprine treatment: the TARGET study. Pharmacogenomics, 12(6), 815-826. eScholarID:162741 | DOI:10.2217/pgs.11.32
  • Perogamvros, I., Aarons, L., Miller, A., Trainer, P. & Ray, D (2011). Corticosteroid-binding globulin regulates cortisol pharmacokinetics. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 74(1), 30-6. eScholarID:133079 | PMID:21054475 | DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2010.03897.x
  • Perogamvros, I., Kayahara, M., Trainer, P. & Ray, D (2011). Serum regulates cortisol bioactivity by corticosteroid-binding globulin dependent and independent mechanisms, as revealed by combined bioassay and physicochemical assay approaches. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), eScholarID:133100 | PMID:21521274 | DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2011.04003.x


  • Ray DW. (2010). Ectopic hormone syndromes. Endocrinology (6th edition). (pp. 2787-2801). eScholarID:108476
  • Berry A, Matthews L, Jangani M, Plumb J, Farrow S, Buchan N, Wilson PA, Singh SD, Ray DW, Donn RP. (2010). Interferon inducible factor 16 (IFF16) is a novel modulator of glucocorticoid action. FASEB J, 24, 1700-1713. eScholarID:76228 | DOI:10.1096/fj.09-139998
  • Berry, A., Matthews, L., Jangani, M., Plumb, J., Farrow, S., Buchan, N., Wilson, P., Singh, D., Ray, D. & Donn, R (2010). Interferon-inducible factor 16 is a novel modulator of glucocorticoid action. The FASEB journal, 24(6), 1700. eScholarID:133093 | PMID:20086048 | DOI:10.1096/fj.09-139998
  • Elsby LM, Orozco G, Denton J, Worthington J, Ray DW, Donn RD. (In-press). Functional evaluation of TNFAIP3 (A20) in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol (in press), eScholarID:105582
  • P Trebble, L Matthews, J Blaikley, AWO Wayte, GCM Black, A Wilton and DW Ray. (In-press). Familial glucocorticoid resistance caused by a novel frameshift glucocorticoid receptor mutation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 95, E490-E499. eScholarID:105536 | DOI:10.1210/jc.2010-0705
  • Perogamvros I, Keevil BG, Ray DW, Trainer PJ. (2010). Salivary Cortisone Is a Potential Biomarker for Serum Free Cortisol. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 95(11), 4951-4958. eScholarID:105139 | DOI:10.1210/jc.2010-1215
  • Perogamvros I, Underhill C, Henley DE, Hadfield KD, Newman WG, Ray DW, Lightman SL, Hammond GL, Trainer PJ. (2010). Novel Corticosteroid-Binding Globulin Variant That Lacks Steroid Binding Activity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 95, E142-E150. eScholarID:105498 | DOI:10.1210/jc.2010-0746
  • Sommer P, Cowan RL, Berry A, Cookson A, Telfer BA, Williams K, Stratford IJ, Kay P, White A, Ray DW. (2010). Glucocorticoid receptor over-expression promotes human small cell lung cancer apoptosis in vivo and thereby slows tumor growth. Endocrine Related Cancer, 17, 203-213. eScholarID:76229 | DOI:10.1677/ERC-09-0241
  • Barr SA, Brass AM, McKervey MA, Miel HJP, Ray DW. (2010) Selective glucocorticoid receptor agonists. eScholarID:241288


  • Davies KA, Silman AJ, Macfarlane GJ, Nicholl BI, Dickens C, Morriss R, Ray DW, McBeth J. (2009). The association between neighbourhood socio-economic status and the onset of chronic widespread pain: Results from the EPIFUND study. Eur J Pain, 13, 635-640. eScholarID:1d18228 | DOI:10.1016/j.ejpain.2008.07.003
  • Elsby L, Donn RP, Alourfi Z, Green LM, Beaulieu E, Ray DW. (2009). Hypoxia and glucocorticoid signaling converge to regulate macrophage migration inhibitory factor gene expression. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 60(8), 2220-2231. eScholarID:1d21764 | DOI:10.1002/art.24659
  • Elsby, L., Donn, R., Alourfi, Z., Green, L., Beaulieu, E. & Ray, D (2009). Hypoxia and glucocorticoid signaling converge to regulate macrophage migration inhibitory factor gene expression. Arthritis Rheum, 60(8), 2220-2231. eScholarID:133109 | PMID:19644855 | DOI:10.1002/art.24659
  • Gibbs JE, Beesley S, Plumb J, Singh SD, Farrow S, Ray DW, Loudon AS. (2009). Circadian timing in the lung; a specific role for bronchiolar epithelial cells. Endocrinology, 150, 268-276. eScholarID:1d20315 | DOI:10.1210/en.2008-0638
  • Kent L, Smyth L, Plumb J, Clayton C, Fox SM, Ray DW, Farrow S, Singh SD. (2009). Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease macrophage inflammatory gene expression by dexamethasone and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor N-cyano-N'-(2-{[8-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-4-(4-fluoro-2-methylphenyl)-7-oxo-7,8-dihydropyrido[2,3-d] pyrimidin-2-yl]amino}ethyl)guanidine (SB706504). J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 328, 458-468. eScholarID:1d19146 | DOI:10.1124/jpet.108.142950
  • Matthews L, Berry A, Tersigni M, D'Acquisto F, Ianaro A, Ray DW. (2009). Thiazolidinediones are partial agonists for the glucocorticoid receptor. Endocrinology, 150, 75-86. eScholarID:1d19145 | DOI:10.1210/en.2008-0196
  • Matthews, L., Berry, A., Tersigni, M., D'Acquisto, F., Ianaro, A. & Ray, D (2009). Thiazolidinediones are partial agonists for the glucocorticoid receptor. Endocrinology, 150(1), 75-86. eScholarID:133118 | PMID:18801908 | DOI:10.1210/en.2008-0196
  • Perogamvros I, Owen LJ, Newell-Price J, Ray DW, Trainer PJ, Keevil BG. (2009). Simultaneous measurement of cortisol and cortisone in human saliva using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: Application in basal and stimulated conditions. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci, 877, 3771-3775. eScholarID:58937 | DOI:10.1016/j.jchromb.2009.09.014
  • Rivers C, Flynn A, Qian X, Matthews L, Lightman S, Ray D, Norman M. (2009). Characterization of conserved Tandem Donor Sites and Intronic Motifs Required for Alternative Splicing in corticosteroid Receptor Genes. Endocrinology, 150, 4958-4967. eScholarID:76227 | DOI:10.1210/en.2009-0346


  • Ray DW. (2008). Paraneoplastic syndromes. Clinical Endocrinology (2nd Edition). (pp. 549-556). eScholarID:108830
  • Churchill A, Carter JG, Ramsden CM, Turner S, Yeung A, Brenchley PEC, Ray DW. (2008). VEGF Polymorphisms are associated with severity of diabetic retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 49, 3611-3616. eScholarID:1d17539 | DOI:10.1167/iovs.07-1383
  • Davies K, Macfarlane B I, Dickens NC, Morriss R, Ray DW, McBeth J. (2008). Restorative sleep predicts the resolution of chronic widespread pain: results from the epifund study. Rheumatology, 47, 1809-1813. eScholarID:1d28339 | DOI:10.1093/rheumatology/ken389
  • Kayahara M, Ohanian J, Ohanian V, Berry A, Vadlamudi R, Ray DW. (2008). MNAR functionally interacts with both N- and C-terminal GR domains to modulate transactivation. Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 295, E1047-E1055. eScholarID:1d19149 | DOI:10.1152/ajpendo.90429.2008
  • Kudrin A, Ray DW. (2008). Cunning factor: macrophage migration inhibitory factor as a redox-regulated target. Immunol Cell Biol, 86, 232-238. eScholarID:15523 | DOI:10.1038/sj.icb.7100133
  • Lavery, G, Walker, E, Tiganescu, A, Ride, J, Shackleton, C, Tomlinson, J, Connell, J, Ray, DW, Biason-Lauber, A, Malunowicz, E, Arlt, W, Stewart, P. (2008). Steroid biomarkers and genetic studies reveal inactivating mutations in hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in patients with cortisone reductase deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 93, 3827-3832. eScholarID:1d19147 | DOI:10.1210/jc.2008-0743
  • Matthews LC, Berry A, Ohanian V, Ohanian J, Garside H, Ray DW. (2008). Caveolin mediates rapid glucocorticoid effects and couples glucocorticoid action to the antiproliferative program. Mol Endocrinol, 22, 1320-1330. eScholarID:1d19153 | DOI:10.1210/me.2007-0154
  • McMaster A and Ray DW. (2008). Glucocorticoid receptor modulators. Drugs of the Future, 33, 753-761. eScholarID:15517 | DOI:10.1358/dof.2008.033.09.1248348
  • McMaster A, Chambers T, Meng Q, Grundy S, Loudon A, Donn RP, Ray DW. (2008). Real-time analysis of gene regulation by glucocorticoid hormones. J Endocrinol, 197( 2), 205-211. eScholarID:1d17508
  • McMaster A, Ray DW. (2008). Drug insight: selective agonists and antagonists of the glucocorticoid receptor. Nature Reviews in Clinical Endocrinology, 4, 91-101. eScholarID:1d20317 | DOI:10.1038/ncpendmet0745
  • Meng Q, McMaster A, Beesley S, Lu W, Gibbs J, Parks D, Collins J, Farrow S, Donn RP, Ray DW, Loudon A. (2008). Ligand modulation of REV-ERBalpha function resets the peripheral circadian clock in a phasic manner. J Cell Science, 121, 3629-3635. eScholarID:1d19151 | DOI:10.1242/jcs.035048
  • Rice L, Waters C, Eccles J, Garside H, Sommer P, Kay P, Blackhall F, Zeef L, Telfer B, Stratford I, Clarke RB, Singh SD, Stevens A, White A, Ray DW. (2008). Identification and functional analysis of SKA2 interaction with the glucocorticoid receptor. J Endocrinol, 198, 499-509. eScholarID:1d17833 | DOI:10.1677/JOE-08-0019
  • Sommer P, Ray DW. (2008). Novel therapeutic agents targeting the glucocorticoid receptor for inflammation and cancer. Curr Opin Investig Drugs, 9, 1070-1077. eScholarID:1d20314


  • Donn RP & Ray DW. (2007). MIF alleles in inflammatory arthritis. eScholarID:108832
  • Donn RP, Payne D, Ray DW. (2007). Glucocorticoid receptor gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Endocrinol, 67, 342-345. eScholarID:1d16541 | DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2007.02887.x
  • Donn, RP, Berry, A, Stevens, A, Farrow, S, Betts, J, Stevens, R, Clayton, C, Wang, J, Warnock, L, Worthington, J, Scott, L, Graham, S, Ray, DW. (2007). Use of gene expression profiling to identify a novel glucocorticoid sensitivity determining gene, BMPRII. FASEB J, 21, 402-414. eScholarID:1d15648 | DOI:10.1096/fj.06-7236com
  • Gupta A, McBeth J, Macfarlane G, MorrissR.K, Dickens C, Ray DW, ChiuY.H, Silman AJ. (2007). Pressure pain thresholds and tender point counts as predictors of new chronic widespread pain in somatising subjects. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 66 (4), 517-521. eScholarID:1d14259
  • Gupta A, Silman AJ, Ray DW, Morriss R, Dickens C, Macfarlane G, ChiuY.H, Nicholl BI, McBeth J. (2007). The role of psychosocial factors in predicting the onset of chronic widespread pain: results from a prospective population-based study. Rheumatology, 46 (4), 666-671. eScholarID:1d14247
  • McBeth J, Silman AJ, Gupta A, Chiu Y, Ray DW, Morriss R, Dickens C, King YE, Macfarlane G. (2007). Moderation of psychosocial risk factors through dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis in the onset of chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain: findings of a population-based prospective cohort study. Arthritis Rheum, 56( 1), 360-371. eScholarID:1d15659 | DOI:10.1002/art.22336
  • McMaster A, Ray DW. (2007). Modelling the glucocorticoid receptor and producing therapeutic agents with anti-inflammatory effects but reduced side-effects. Exp Physiol, 92( 2), 299-309. eScholarID:1d20319 | DOI:10.1113/expphysiol.2006.036194
  • Perveen R, Favor J, Jamieson R, Ray DW, Black GCM. (2007). A heterozygous c-Maf transactivation domain mutation causes congenital cataract and enhances target gene activation. Hum Mol Genet, 16, 1030-1038. eScholarID:1d31398 | DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddm048
  • Sommer P, Le Rouzic PP, Gillingham H, Berry A, Kayahara M, Huynh T, White A, Ray DW. (2007). Glucocorticoid receptor over-expression exerts an anti-survival effect on human small cell lung cancer cells. Oncogene, 26, 7111-7121. eScholarID:70242 | DOI:10.1038/sj.onc.1210524


  • Garside H, Waters C, Berry A, Rice L, Ardley H, White A, Robinson P, Ray DW. (2006). UbcH7 interacts with the glucocorticoid receptor and mediates receptor autoregulation. J Endocrinol, 190, 621-629. eScholarID:1d19273 | DOI:10.1677/joe.1.06799
  • Kudrin A, Scott M, Martin S, Chung C, Donn RP, McMaster A, Ellison S, Ray DW, Ray K, Binks M. (2006). Human macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF): A proven immunomodulatory cytokine? J Biol Chem, 281, 29641-29651. eScholarID:1d14361 | DOI:10.1074/jbc.M601103200
  • Ray DW, Donn R, Berry A. (2006). Glucocorticoid sensitivity: pathology, mutations and clinical implications. Expert Review in Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1, 403-412. eScholarID:15502 | DOI:10.1586/17446651.1.3.403
  • Ray DW, Donn R, Kayahara M. (2006). Understanding glucocorticoids. Horizons in Medicine (Online), 18, 167-167. eScholarID:241478
  • Ray DW. (2006). The ectopic ACTH syndrome: Diagnosis and treatment. Current opinion in endocrinology and diabetes, 13, 237-241. eScholarID:15490 | DOI:10.1097/


  • Davis JRE and Ray DW. (2005). Molecular and cellular biology. Textbook of Clinical Science. Oxford university Press, Oxford, UK. eScholarID:108833
  • Ray DW. (2005). Ectopic hormone syndromes. Endocrinology. Philadelphia, USA: WB Sounders Company. eScholarID:108836
  • Alourfi Z, Donn RP, Stevens A, Berry A, McMaster A, Ray DW. (2005). Glucocorticoids suppress macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) expression in a cell-type-specific manner. J Mol Endocrinol, 34, 583-595. eScholarID:1d11762 | DOI:10.1677/jme.1.01647
  • Chiu Y, Silman AJ, Macfarlane G, Ray DW, Gupta A, Dickens C, Morriss R, McBeth J. (2005). Poor sleep and depression are independently associated with a reduced pain threshold. Results of a population based study. Pain, 115, 316-321. eScholarID:1d11805 | DOI:10.1016/j.pain.2005.03.009
  • McBeth J, Chiu Y, Silman AJ, Ray DW, Morriss K, Dickens C, Gupta A, Macfarlane G. (2005). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis function and the relationship with chronic widespread pain and its antecedents. Arthritis Res Ther, 7, 992-1000. eScholarID:1d11800 | DOI:10.1186/ar1772
  • Mishra M, Durrington PN, Mackness M, Siddals KW, Kaushal K, Davies R, Gibson JM, Ray DW. (2005). Atorvastatin affects the serum lipoprotein profile and cardiovascular risk in acromegaly. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 62, 650-655. eScholarID:1d19275 | DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2005.02273.x
  • Nardo L, Ray DW, Laing I, Williams C, McVey R, Seif M. (2005). Ovarian Leydig cell tumor in a peri-menopausal woman with severe hyperandrogenism and virilization. Gynaecol Endocrinol, 21, 238-241. eScholarID:1d19274 | DOI:10.1080/09513590500369005
  • Richards HL, Ray DW, B Kirby, D Mason, Plant D, CJ Main, DG Fortune, Griffiths CEM. (2005). Response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to psychological stress in patients with psoriasis. British Journal of Dermatology, 153, 1114-1120. eScholarID:1d10837 | DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2133.2005.06817.x
  • Newman, WG, Payne, K, Poulton, K, Andrews, J, Houston, B, Elliott, RA, Elles, RG, Ray, DW, Shaffer, J, Griffiths, CE, Bruce, IN, Roberts, SA, Qasim, F, Ollier, WER. (2005). The TARGET (TPMT: Azathioprine Response to Genotyping and Enzyme Testing) study. BMJ Rapid response, Feb 28, eScholarID:17d765
  • Payne K, Fargher EA, Tricker K, Newman WG, Qasim FF, Poulton K, Andrews J, Houston JB, Elliott RA, Elles R, Ray DW, Shaffer JL, Griffiths CEM, Bruce IN, Roberts S A, Olier WER. (2005). Research Governance: What is reasonable protection? BMJ Rapid Response, eScholarID:17d957


  • Donn R, Ray DW. (2004). Macrophage migration inhibitory factor: molecular, cellular and genetic aspects of a key neuroendocrine molecule. J Endocrinol, 182( 1), 1-9. eScholarID:1d20322
  • Donn RP, Alourfi Z, Zeggini E, Lamb R, Jury F, Lunt M, The British Paediatric Rheumatology Study Group, Meazza C, De Benedetti F, Thomson W, Ray DW. (2004). A functional promoter haplotype of macrophage migration inhibitory facor (MIF) is linked and associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 50, 1604-1610. eScholarID:1d26133 | DOI:10.1002/art.20178
  • Donn RP, Plant D, Jury F, Richards HL, Worthington J, Ray DW, Griffiths CEM. (2004). Macrophage migration inhibitory factor gene polymorphism is associated with psoriasis. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 123, 484-487. eScholarID:1d7891 | DOI:10.1111/j.0022-202X.2004.23314.x
  • Garside HJ, Stevens A, Farrow S, Berry A, Maschera B, Ray DW. (2004). Glucocorticoid ligands specify different interactions with NF-kB by allosteric effects on the glucocorticoid receptor DNA binding domain. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 279, 50050-50059. eScholarID:1d26135 | DOI:10.1074/jbc.M407309200
  • Ray DW, Mishra M, Ralph S, Read I, Davies R, Brenchley P. (2004). Association of the VEGF gene with proliferative diabetic retinopathy but not proteinuria in diabetes. Diabetes, 53, 861-864. eScholarID:1d19278 | DOI:10.2337/diabetes.53.3.861
  • Stevens A, Donn RP, Ray DW. (2004). Glucocorticoid receptor gamma expression is not regulated by genotype, or glucocorticoid. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 61, 327-331. eScholarID:1d11766
  • Stevens A, Ray DW, Zeggini E, John S, Richards HL, Griffiths CEM, Donn RP. (2004). Glucocorticoid sensitivity is determined by a specific glucocorticoid receptor haplotype. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 89, 892-897. eScholarID:1d8135 | DOI:10.1210/jc.2003-031235
  • Waters CE, Stevens A, White A, Ray DW. (2004). Analysis of co-factor function in a glucocorticoid resistant small cell carcinoma cell line. Journal of Endocrinology, 183, 375-383. eScholarID:1d26031 | DOI:10.1677/joe.1.05804
  • Barr AS, Mckervey MA, Miel HJ, Ray DW, Brass AM. (2004) Selective glucocorticoid receptor agonists. eScholarID:241287


  • Draper N, Walker E, Bujalska I, Tomlinson J, Chalder S, Arlt W, Lavery G, Bedendo O, Ray DW, Laing I, Malunowicz E, White P, Hewison M, Mason P, Connell J, Shackleton C, Stewart PM. (2003). Mutations in the genes encoding 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase interact to cause cortisone reductase deficiency. Nat Genet, 34, 434-439. eScholarID:1d20323 | DOI:10.1038/ng1214
  • Liew YY, Docter E, Ray DW. (2003). Graeb C, Justl M, Tange S, et al, entitled “An Adenoviral Gene Transfer System to Express High Levels of Soluble Allogeneic MHC Class 1 Molecules In Vitro and In Vivo”(Transplant Proc 34: 2318, 2002). Transplant Proc, 35, 883-883. eScholarID:241480
  • Nelson G, Wilde GJ, Spiller DG, Kennedy SM, Ray DW, Sullivan E, Unitt JF, White MRH. (2003). NF-kB signalling is ihhibited by glucocorticoid receptor and STAT6 via distinct mechanisms. J Cell Sci, 116, 2495-2503. eScholarID:1d20324 | DOI:10.1242/jcs.00461
  • Stevens A, Garside H, Berry A, Waters C, White A, Ray DW. (2003). Dissociation of steroid receptor coactivator 1 and nuclear receptor corepressor recruitment to the human glucocorticoid receptor by modification of the ligand-receptor interface: the role of Tyrosine 735. Molecular Endocrinology, 17, 845-859. eScholarID:73541 | DOI:10.1210/me.2002-0320
  • Stevens A, Soden J, Brenchley PEC, Ralph S, Ray DW. (2003). Haplotype analysis of the polymorphic human vascular endothelial growth factor gene promoter. Cancer Research, 63, 812-816. eScholarID:1d25024


  • Ray DW, Tobias E, O’Donoghue DJ, Rees G, Moore CEG, Zoha M, Hopkins RS. (2002). MRCP 1 Pocket Book 2, Basic Sciences, Neurology and Psychiatry. Knutsford, Cheshire: Pastest. eScholarID:240859
  • Ray DW, White A, Davis JRE. (2002). Ectopic pituitary hormone production. Genetics in Endocrinology. eScholarID:3d733
  • Ray DW. (2002). Ectopic hormone syndromes. Oxford Textbook of Endocrinology. Oxford University Press. eScholarID:108839
  • White A, Ray DW, GaillardR.C. (2002). ACTH precursors in different pathological conditions. The ACTH axis: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment. Kluwer Academic Publ. eScholarID:3d813
  • (2002). Rheumatology (Oxford), 41, 52-52. eScholarID:241483
  • Donn RP, Alourfi Z, De Benedetti F, Meazza C, Zeggini E, Lunt M, Stevens A, Shelley E, Lamb E, Ollier WER, Thomson W, Ray DW. (2002). Mutation screening of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) gene: positive association of a functional polymorphism of MIF with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 46, 2402-2409. eScholarID:1d2604 | DOI:10.1002/art.10492
  • Huynh T, Ray DW, Brogan I, Stevens A, Davis JRE, White A. (2002). Failure of steroid regulation of the MMTV promoter in a small cell lung cancer cell line is caused by a DNA sequence flanking the glucocorticoid response element. Journal of Endocrinology, 172, 295-302. eScholarID:73665 | DOI:10.1677/joe.0.1720295
  • Liew Y, Docter E, Ray DW, Hutchinson IV, Brogan I. (2002). Effect of rapamycin and prednisolone in differentiated THP-1 and U937 cells. Transplant Proc, 34, 2872-2873. eScholarID:1d20325 | DOI:10.1016/S0041-1345(02)03540-6
  • Sacco M, Valenti G, Corvi-Mora P, Wu FW, Ray DW. (2002). DHEA, a selective glucocorticoid receptor antagonist: its role in immune system regulation and metabolism. J Endocrinol Invest, 25, 81-82. eScholarID:1d25086
  • Soden J, Stevens A, Ray DW. (2002). Genetic engineering of the glucocorticoid receptor by fusion with the herpes viral protein VP22 causes selective loss of transactivation. J Endocrinol, 172, 615-625. eScholarID:1d20326 | DOI:10.1677/joe.0.1720615


  • Stevens A, Ray DW, Alansari A, Hajeer A, Thomson W, Donn RP, Ollier WER, Worthington J, Davis JRE. (2001). Characterization of a prolactin gene polymorphism and its associations with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum, 44, 2358-2366. eScholarID:1d15732 | DOI:10.1002/1529-0131(200110)44:10<2358::AID-ART399>3.0.CO;2- K
  • Stevens A, Ray DW, Worthington J, Davis JRE. (2001). Polymorphisms of the human prolactin gene--implications for production of lymphocyte prolactin and systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus, 10, 676-683. eScholarID:1d19277 | DOI:10.1191/096120301717164903


  • White A, Ray DW. (2000). Adrenocorticotrophic hormone. Endocrinology (4th)edition, section on neuroendocrinology. eScholarID:3d992
  • Ellison JA, Patel L, Ray DW, David TJ, Clayton PE. (2000). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and glucocorticoid sensitivity in atopic dermatitis. Pediatrics, 105, 1-6. eScholarID:1d3965
  • Ellison, J., Patel, L., Ray, D., David, T. & Clayton, P (2000). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and glucocorticoid sensitivity in atopic dermatitis. Pediatrics, 105(4 Pt 1), 794-9. eScholarID:133107 | PMID:10742322
  • White A, Ray DW, Talbot A, Abraham P, Thody A, Bevan J. (2000). Cushing's syndrome due to phaeochromocytoma secreting the precursors of adrenocorticotropin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 85(12), 4771-4775. eScholarID:73667


  • Ray DW, Suen CS, Brass AA, Soden J and White A. (1999). Structure/function of the human glucocorticoid receptor: tyrosine 735 is important for transactivation. Mol Endocrinol, 13, 1855-1864. eScholarID:1d20329
  • Reem G, Ray DW, Davis JRE. (1999). Coordinated regulation of human prolactin gene transcription by immunophilins and cAMP. J Mol Endocrinol, 22, 285-293. eScholarID:1d20330
  • Schwartz J, Ray DW, Perez FM. (1999). Leukemia inhibitory factor as an intrapituitary mediator of ACTH secretion. Neuroendocrinology, 69, 34-43. eScholarID:1d20331


  • Bidey SP, Best LC, Ray DW & Davis JRE. (1998). Hormone receptors and intracellular signalling. Clinical Endocrinology. eScholarID:111992
  • (1998). Ann N Y Acad Sci, 839(1), 239-243. eScholarID:241485 | DOI:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1998.tb10767.x
  • Ellison JA, Patel L, Ray DW, Addison GM, David TJ, Clayton PE. (1998). The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Atopic Dermatitis† 419. Pediatr Res, 43, 74-74. eScholarID:241484 | DOI:10.1203/00006450-199804001-00440
  • Ray DW, Lovering A, Davis JRE, White A. (1998). Rifampicin: a glucocorticoid receptor ligand? Nature Medicine, 4(10), 1090-1091. eScholarID:73668
  • Ray DW, Ren S, Melmed S. (1998). Leukemia inhibitory factor regulates proopiomelanocortin transcription. Annals of New York Academy of Sciences, 840, 162-173. eScholarID:1d20333
  • Schwartz J, Van de Pavert S, Clarke I, Rao A, Ray D, Vrana K. (1998). Paracrine interactions within the pituitary gland. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 839(1), 239-243. eScholarID:240753


  • Bousquet C, Ray DW, Melmed S. (1997). A common pro-opiomelanocortin-binding element mediates leukemia inhibitory factor and corticotropin-releasing hormone transcriptional synergy. J Biol Chem, 272, 10551-10557. eScholarID:1d20335
  • Ray DW, S Melmed. (1997). Pituitary cytokine and growth factor expression and action: a review. Endocrine Reviews, 18, 206-228. eScholarID:1d33927
  • Shimon I, Yan X, Ray DW, Melmed S. (1997). Cytokine-dependent gp130 receptor subunit regulates human fetal pituitary adrenocorticotropin hormone and growth hormone secretion. J Clin Invest, 100, 357-363. eScholarID:1d20334 | DOI:10.1172/JCI119541


  • Davis JRE, Ray DW, Clark AJL, White A. (1996). Glucocorticoid signalling in the ectopic ACTH syndrome-towards a molecular understanding. Q J Med, 89, 867-868. eScholarID:105461
  • Ray DW, Davis JRE, White A, Clark AJL. (1996). Glucocorticoid receptor structure and function in glucocorticoid-resistant small cell lung carcinoma cells. Cancer Research, 56(14), 3276-3280. eScholarID:74283
  • Ray DW, Melmed S. (1996). Regulation of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene transcription by leukaemia inhibitory factor: molecular mechanism for a neuro-immuno-endocrine interface. J Invest Med, 44, 266. eScholarID:105458
  • Ray DW, Ren S-G, Melmed S. (1996). Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) stimulates proopiomelanocortin (POMC) expression in a corticotroph cell line. J Clin Invest, 97, 1852-1859. eScholarID:1d20338 | DOI:10.1172/JCI118615
  • Ray DW. (1996). Glucocorticoid resistance: molecular insights. Endocrine News, 21, 7. eScholarID:105485
  • Ray DW. (1996). Molecular mechanisms of glucocorticoid resistance. J Endocrinol, 149, 1-5. eScholarID:1d20339
  • S Gibson, Ray DW, SR Crosby, Dornan TL, AM Jennings, JS Bevan, Davis JRE, White A. (1996). Impaired processing of proopiomelanocortin in corticotroph macroadenomas. Journal Of Clincal Endocrinology And Metabolism, 81, 497-502. eScholarID:1d24390
  • Stefana B, Ray DW, Melmed S. (1996). Leukemia inhibitory factor induces differentiation of pituitary corticotroph function: an immuno-neuroendocrine phenotypic switch. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 12502-12506. eScholarID:1d20336


  • Ray DW, Gibson S, Crosby SR, Davies D, Davis JRE, White A. (1995). Elevated levels of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) precursors in post-adrenalectomy Cushing's disease and their regulation by glucocorticoids. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 80(8), 2430-2436. eScholarID:74284


  • Ray DW, Littlewood A, Clark A, Davis JRE, White A. (1994). Human small cell lung cancer cell lines expressing the proopiomelanocortin gene have aberrant glucocorticoid receptor function. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 93(4), 1625-1630. eScholarID:74285
  • White A, Gibson S, Ray DW, Crosby SR. (1994). Progress in measurement of ACTH and related peptides. Proc UK NEQAS Meeting, 1, 72-78. eScholarID:1d33756


  • Ray DW, Bridger J, Hawnaur J, Waldek S, Bernstein RR, Dornan TL. (1993). Transverse myelitis as the presentation of Jo-1 antibody syndrome (myositis and fibrosing alveolitis) in long-standing ulcerative colitis. Brish Journal of Rheumatology, 32, 1105-1108. eScholarID:1d20343
  • Ray DW, Williams G. (1993). Flushing: Pathophysiological causes and clinical significance. British Journal of Hospital Medicine, 50, 594-598. eScholarID:1d33527