Professor David Ray

Photograph of David Ray

Professor of Medicine and Endocrinology

Centre for Endocrinology and Diabetes
AV Hill Building
Oxford Road
M13 9PT


Professor of medicine and endocrinology

Honorary consultant in endocrinology at Manchester Royal Infirmary

Deputy editor, Journal of Endocrinology

Deputy Chair, MRC Clinical Research Training Fellowship Panel

General Secretary, Society for Endocrinology

Memberships of Committees and Professional Bodies

Society for Endocrinology

Endocrine Society

British Medical Association

Royal College of Physicians of London


My research aims to discover how circadian timing mechanisms affect inflammation, and immunity and the role of nuclear receptors to mediating this communication.

I came to this from studying how glucocorticoid signalling regulates immunity and inflammation. I worked on glucocorticoid sensitivity in human small cell lung cancer, and discovered the underlying mechanism explaining ectopic ACTH secretion. This led to analysis of immune system cross-talk with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which identified the role of intrapituitary cytokine expression, and action.

I returned to Manchester as a clinical lecturer, and moved to define structure-activity relations for synthetic glucocorticoid. This led to the first publication of a model for the ligand binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor, which was later validated by crystallography. I reported on the GRgamma isoform, as a constitutive splice variant, with distinct properties. I went on to discover the mechanism explaining production of the isoform, and to show that this is conserved through mammalian evolution.

I extended my interest to include circadian timing mechanisms as it became clear that glucocorticoids serve as a major timing signal, by regulating PER1 expression. Moreover, working with Andrew Loudon, we discovered that timing cells in the lung were enriched for glucocorticoid receptor expression.

Variation in glucocortiocid sensitivity is a major issue in human healthcare, with huge annual usage of glucocorticoid drugs to treat lung disease. I have led a discovery programme to find mechanisms explaining such variation in sensitivity. This programme of work has identified cave-in (highly enriched in the lung), MERM1 (a methyltransferase with very high expression in bronchial epithelium), PIN1 (an isomerase with selective action of GR transactivation), and BMPRII (a transmembrane receptor genetically linked to primary pulmonary hypertension).

My interest in glucocortiocid action, and expertise in structure:activity modelling and experimental validation led to a drug discovery programme which has resulted in world-wide patent protection for a series of synthetic steroids with selective glucocorticoid action, SEGRA molecules. This programme was funded by a Wellcome Trust SDDI award.

My interests in nuclear receptor function naturally led to a programme identifying synthetic ligands for NR1D1 (REVERBa). We published the first such molecules, and have gone on to find both agonist and antagonist ligands. We are pursuing the mechanisms of action now, with a view to obtaining appropriate probes for in-vivo testing in lung inflammation (current molecules lack potency, and have undesirable PK properties).

With Andrew Loudon I have led a programme studying circadian control of macrophage function, and more recently circadian regulation of pulmonary immunity. In this latter programme we have discovered the key timing cells in the lung, and shown that the circadian clock regulates inflammation in part through epigenetic regulation of glucocorticoid receptor function in the lung.


Supervisor for Current Students:

2005-           Ms Laura Robinson

PhD (University of Manchester) - Funded by University of Manchester

2006-             Mr Stephen Beesley

PhD (University of Manchester) - Funded by BBSRC CASE award

2007-          Dr Ilias Perogamvros

PhD (University of Manchester) - Funded by Onassis Foundation

2007-             Dr John Blaikley

PhD (University of Manchester) - MRC Clinical Research Training Fellowship

2008 -            Maryam Jangani

PhD (University of Manchester) - NIHR Manchester Biomedical Research Centre

2009 -            Peter Trebble

PhD (University of Manchester) - GSK CASE

2009 -            Sarah Otto

PhD (University of Manchester) - GSK CASE

2010 -            Seamus Grundy

PhD (University of Manchester) - Wellcome Trust clinical research training fellowship

2010 -           John Raynolds

MPhil (University of Manchester) - NIHR Manchester Biomedical Research Centre

Past students:

1999 - 2002  Dr Charlotte Waters

PhD (University of Manchester) - Funded by BBSRC, currently post-doc, King's College, London

2002 - 2003  Dr Xaiojing Pan

PhD (University of Manchester) - Funded by ORS and URS awards, currently post-doct, University of Minnesota, USA

2002 - 2003 Dr Helen J Garside

PhD (University of Manchester) - Funded by BBSRC CASE award, currently post-doc, AstraZeneca

2000 - 2003 Ms Elaine Gill

PhD (University of Manchester) - Joint supervisor with Dr Simon Luckman, Biological Sciences, University of Manchester. Currently post-doct, University of Liverpool

2001- 2005  Dr Zaynab Alourfi

PhD (University of Manchester) - Funded by the Syrian Government

2002- 2005  Ms Lisa Rice

PhD (University of Manchester) - Funded by the BBSRC

2003 - 2007  Ms Elaine Beaulieu

PhD (University of Manchester) - Funded by Frederick Craven bequest

2005 - 2007  Mr Andrew McMaster

PhD (University of Manchester) - Funded by the arc

2005 - 2008  Mr Andrew Berry

PhD (University of Manchester) - Funded by University of Manchester

2006 - 2010  Mr Paul Kay

PhD (University of Manchester) - MRC quota studentship


Graduated in medicine, University of Manchester, in 1987.

Trained in general internal medicine and endocrinology in the North West of England.

PhD University of Manchester in 1994

Post doctoral work at UCLA 1994-1996

GSK fellow University of Manchester, then lecturer, senior lecturer and professor in 2005



MB ChB Manchester

PhD Manchester

FRCP Royal College of Physicians

Collaborators and affiliated staff

I have established an independent research group that now comprises:

  • Dr Philippe LeRouzec (Research Associate)
  • Dr Midori Kayahara (Research Associate)
  • Dr Helen Attisha (Research Associate)
  • Dr Laura Elsby (Research Associate)
  • Miss Helen Gillingham (Research Assistant)
  • Mr Andrew McMaster (Research Assistant)
  • Mr Stuart Ellison (Research Assistant)
  • Miss Elaine Beaulieu (PhD student)
  • Miss Lisa Rice (PhD student)
  • Dr Zaynab Alourfi (PhD student)
  • Mr Andrew Berry (Research Technician)

Major Active Collaborations:

Hypothalamic-pituitary axis and stress

Prof Francis Creed, Prof Gary MacFarlane, Prof Alan Silman; Psychiatry and arc epidemiology units, University of Manchester

Prof CEM Griffiths; Academic Dermatology Unit, University of Manchester  

Glucocorticoid action in inflammatory disease

Dr Rachelle Donn, arc epidemiology unit, University of Manchester

Dr Stuart Farrow and Dr Barbara Maschera, Glaxo SmithKline, Asthma Cell Biology, Stevenage, UK

Prof Ashley Woodcock, Dr Dave Singh, NorthWest Regional Lung Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital, and Medical School, University of Manchester.

Prof Michael White, Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool

Glucocorticoid sensitivity

Dr Michael Norman, School of Medicine, University of Bristol

Dr Julie B Stimmel, GSK, North Carolina, USA

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor

Dr Rachelle Donn, arc epidemiology unit, University of Manchester

Prof Simon Gaskell, Department of Chemistry, University of Manchester.

Dr Keith Ray, GSK, Stevenage, UK

Retroviral gene delivery

Dr Jim Freeth, Astra-Zeneca, Alderley Park, UK

Diabetic retinal disease

Dr Paul Bishop, Wellcome Trust Senior Fellow, Biological Sciences, University of Manchester

Dr Rachelle Donn, ARC epidemiology unit, University of Manchester

Dr J Martin Gibson, Consultant in diabetes, Salford Royal Hospitals, Manchester

Dr Graham Leese, Consultant in Diabetes, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee.

Orphan nuclear receptors in human inflammatory disease

Dr Antonio Castrillo, UCLA, Los Angeles, USA

Dr Stuart Farrow, GSK, Stevenage, UK



  • Carter, S. J., Durrington, H., Gibbs, J., Blaikley, J., Loudon, A., Ray, D., & Sabroe, I. (2016). A matter of time: study of circadian clocks and their role in inflammation.Journal of leukocyte biology|J Leukoc Biol, 99(4), 549-560. DOI:10.1189/jlb.3RU1015-451R. Publication link: 95a4918c-03e5-47ec-b6c9-8e654e7f3ed4 | PubMed:26856993
  • Joseph, R. M., Hunter, A. L., Ray, D. W., & Dixon, W. G. (2016). Systemic glucocorticoid therapy and adrenal insufficiency in adults: a systematic review. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. . Publication link: 220ba398-e15d-49b8-a4b1-6248a263fb82
  • Lane, J. M., Vlasac, I., Anderson, S. G., Kyle, S. D., Dixon, W. G., Bechtold, D. A., ... Saxena, R. (2016). Genome-wide association analysis identifies novel loci for chronotype in 100,420 individuals from the UK Biobank. Nature Communications, 7, [10889]. DOI:10.1038/ncomms10889, 10.1038/ncomms10889. Publication link: fe7944d2-acce-49e4-93a5-e9c73369b137 | PubMed:26955885
  • Movahedi, M., Beauchamp, M., Abrahamowicz, M., Ray, D. W., Michaud, K., Pedro, S., & Dixon, W. G. (2016). Risk of incident diabetes mellitus associated with the dosage and duration of oral glucocorticoid therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 68(5), 1089–1098. DOI:10.1002/art.39537. Publication link: 4577fd90-9b8c-4763-a778-dc7661ad1f9d
  • Poolman, T., Williamson, A., Wang, Z., Clark, N. R., Ma’ayan, A., Whetton, A., ... Ray, D. (2016). Glucocorticoid receptor isoforms direct distinct mitochondrial programs to regulate ATP production. Scientific Reports. . Publication link: 9d4f2461-d34c-4271-97e0-bbe687611e80
  • Reynolds, J. A., Haque, S., Williamson, K., Ray, D. W., Alexander, M. Y., & Bruce, I. N. (2016). Vitamin D improves endothelial dysfunction and restores myeloid angiogenic cell function via reduced CXCL-10 expression in systemic lupus erythematosus.Scientific Reports, 6. DOI:10.1038/srep22341. Publication link: f29dbc6b-d58b-4ef1-aa4a-ff096befc5f1 | PubMed:26930567
  • Strehl, C., Bijlsma, J. W. J., de Wit, M., Boers, M., Caeyers, N., Cutolo, M., ... Buttgereit, F. (2016). Defining conditions where long-term glucocorticoid treatment has an acceptably low level of harm to facilitate implementation of existing recommendations: viewpoint from an EULAR task force. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 75(6), 952-7. DOI:10.1136/annrheumdis-2015-208916. Publication link: ce020aaf-9975-4956-9867-85c92ff8f1dd | PubMed:26933146


  • Caratti, G., Matthews, L., Poolman, T., Kershaw, S., Baxter, M., & Ray, D. (2015). Glucocorticoid receptor function in health and disease.Clinical endocrinology, 83(4). DOI:10.1111/cen.12728. Publication link: 1f087341-a15e-4fb3-ac4c-d7051cc835d8 | PubMed:25627931
  • Khanna, A., Khurana, R., Kyriacou, A., Davies, R., & Ray, D. W. (2015). Management of adrenocortical insufficiency with continuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusion: long-term experience in three patients.Endocrinology, diabetes & metabolism case reports, 2015. DOI:10.1530/EDM-15-0005. Publication link: d4f6cafb-7709-496d-b217-9a1a02c6836b | PubMed:26124953
  • Matthews, L. C., Berry, A. A., Morgan, D. J., Poolman, T. M., Bauer, K., Kramer, F., ... Ray, D. W. (2015). Glucocorticoid receptor regulates accurate chromosome segregation and is associated with malignancy.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112(17). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1411356112. Publication link: bcdf1143-6417-4525-b236-e8d80c758d1d | PubMed:25847991
  • Reynolds, J., Ray, D., Alexander, M. Y., & Bruce, I. (2015). Role of vitamin D in endothelial function and endothelial repair in clinically stable systemic lupus erythematosus.Lancet (London, England), 385 Suppl 1. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60398-1. Publication link: c058b918-641c-45a8-8ddf-d8dbb0ef86d9 | PubMed:26312905
  • Rutkowski, D., Syed, F., Matthews, L. C., Ray, D. W., McGrouther, D. A., Watson, R. E., & Bayat, A. (2015). An abnormality in glucocorticoid receptor expression differentiates steroid responders from nonresponders in keloid disease.British Journal of Dermatology, 173(3), 690-700. DOI:10.1111/bjd.13752. Publication link: 8c7f49b4-4601-4ce5-b671-75a8573b490d | PubMed:25712143


  • Durrington, H. J., Farrow, S. N., Loudon, A. S., & Ray, D. W. (2014). The circadian clock and asthma. Thorax, 69(1), 90-92. DOI:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2013-203482. Publication link: 5b16e0e4-9ae3-46c2-bb03-8dd98c224f95 | PubMed:23704227
  • Gibbs, J., Ince, L., Matthews, L., Mei, J., Bell, T., Yang, N., ... Loudon, A. (2014). An epithelial circadian clock controls pulmonary inflammation and glucocorticoid action. Nature Medicine, 20(8), 919-926. DOI:10.1038/nm.3599. Publication link: c3f398e6-dea9-4755-879b-d10ffa6b7c22 | PubMed:25064128
  • Hand, L., Usan, P., Cooper, G. J. S., Xu, L. Y., Ammori, B., Cunningham, P., ... Ray, D. (2014). Adiponectin Induces A20 Expression in Adipose Tissue To Confer Metabolic Benefit.Diabetes, 64(Sep 4. pii: DB_131835. [Epub ahead of print]), 128-136. DOI:10.2337/db13-1835. Publication link: edf6be87-1727-4b3b-9669-6f6446fbf176 | PubMed:25190567
  • Higham, A., Lea, S., Ray, D., & Singh, D. (2014). Corticosteroid effects on COPD alveolar macrophages: dependency on cell culture methodology.Journal of immunological methods, 405, 144-153. DOI:10.1016/j.jim.2014.02.003. Publication link: 46697508-e0fd-441b-b3fc-bd1acc309481 | PubMed:24530567
  • Jangani, M., Poolman, T. M., Matthews, L., Yang, N., Farrow, S. N., Berry, A., ... Ray, D. W. (2014). The methyltransferase WBSCR22/Merm1 enhances glucocorticoid receptor function and is regulated in lung inflammation and cancer. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 289(13), 8931-8946. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M113.540906. Publication link: 2518d6d0-0222-47e8-b112-a88e6f47ee4e | PubMed:24488492
  • Reynolds, J. A., Ray, D. W., Zeef, L. A. H., O'Neill, T., Bruce, I. N., & Alexander, M. Y. (2014). The effect of type 1 IFN on human aortic endothelial cell function in vitro: Relevance to systemic lupus erythematosus. Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research, 34(5), 404-412. DOI:10.1089/jir.2013.0016. Publication link: f5fe03b1-1226-4b3f-bd63-c2a1f519d3a7 | PubMed:24444308
  • Singh, N., Taylor, K., Mjoli, P. B., Poolman, T., Ray, D. W., & Sommer, P. (2014). The N-terminal transactivation domain of the glucocorticoid receptor mediates apoptosis of human small cell lung cancer cells. Genes Chromosomes and Cancer. DOI:10.1002/gcc.22209. Publication link: 16b18d72-dcd3-4c58-a10a-c0b841d9c929
  • Yang, N., Caratti, G., Ince, L. M., Poolman, T. M., Trebble, P. J., Holt, C. M., ... Matthews, L. C. (2014). Serum cholesterol selectively regulates glucocorticoid sensitivity through activation of JNK.The Journal of endocrinology, 223(2), 155-166. DOI:10.1530/JOE-14-0456. Publication link: fb022cfd-952c-4c61-a293-f771848eff14 | PubMed:25161081


  • Gibbs, J. E., & Ray, D. W. (2013). The role of the circadian clock in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Research and Therapy, 15(1), [205]. DOI:10.1186/ar4146. Publication link: 88b20ade-f82d-4ba6-a5db-0f618e78c934
  • Green, L., Cookson, A., Bruce, I. N., Donn, R. P., & Ray, D. W. (2013). Identification of multiple, oxygen-stable HIF1 alpha isoforms, and augmented expression of adrenomedullin in rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology, 31(5), 672-682. . Publication link: 513d182f-a785-447f-bd4a-27da129acfd5 | PubMed:23711352
  • Grundy, S., Plumb, J., Lea, S., Kaur, M., Ray, D., & Singh, D. (2013). Down regulation of T cell receptor expression in COPD pulmonary CD8 cells.PLoS ONE, 8(8), [e71629]. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0071629. Publication link: 61ed702b-c3d8-4d73-bac0-ace2c6699d59 | PubMed:23977094
  • Higham, A., Lea, S., Plumb, J., Maschera, B., Simpson, K., Ray, D., & Singh, D. (2013). The role of the liver X receptor in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respiratory Research, 14(1), [106]. DOI:10.1186/1465-9921-14-106. Publication link: fc174c0d-f131-4856-b8c9-87e15b7a5962 | PubMed:24118845
  • Kay, P., Schlossmacher, G., Matthews, L., Sommer, P., Singh, D., White, A., & Ray, D. (2013). Erratum: Loss of glucocorticoid receptor expression by DNA methylation prevents glucocorticoid induced apoptosis in human small cell lung cancer cells (PLoS ONE (2013) 8 (8)). PLoS ONE, 8(8), [A32]. DOI:10.1371/annotation/4aad3313-abac-404f-85b0-3b95aec89be4. Publication link: 6c5813d1-6d7e-491c-a2a1-bea6c1cf8623
  • Matthews, L., Trebble, P. J., Woolven, J. M., Saunders, K. A., Simpson, K. D., Farrow, S. N., ... Ray, D. W. (2013). A ligand-specific kinetic switch regulates glucocorticoid receptor trafficking and function. Journal of Cell Science, 126(14), 3159-3169. DOI:10.1242/jcs.124784. Publication link: 5782994a-dfc7-4b43-a239-d147061cb753
  • Nugent, J. L., Wareing, M., Palin, V., Sibley, C. P., Baker, P. N., Ray, D. W., ... Jones, R. L. (2013). Chronic glucocorticoid exposure potentiates placental chorionic plate artery constriction: Implications for aberrant fetoplacental vascular resistance in fetal growth restriction. Endocrinology, 154(2), 876-887. DOI:10.1210/en.2012-1927. Publication link: 0b8f613c-3b05-423a-8ee3-6708f11b1769 | PubMed:23295737
  • Pierce, A., Williamson, A., Jaworska, E., Griffiths, J. R., Taylor, S., Walker, M., ... Whetton, A. D. (2013). Correction: Identification of nuclear protein targets for six leukemogenic tyrosine kinases governed by post-translational regulation (PLoS ONE). PLoS ONE, 8(6). DOI:10.1371/annotation/df82a4c0-2909-43a0-8a7f-5bd2ce9ca0bd. Publication link: 1e099c22-b570-4fe5-8ee8-659c289b1617
  • Plumb, J., Robinson, L., Lea, S., Banyard, A., Blaikley, J., Ray, D., ... Singh, D. (2013). Evaluation of Glucocorticoid Receptor Function in COPD Lung Macrophages Using Beclomethasone-17-Monopropionate. PLoS ONE, 8(5), [e64257]. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0064257. Publication link: 9876b57d-f5ac-4d10-ad36-e1707db68234 | PubMed:23704983
  • Poolman, T. M., Farrow, S. N., Matthews, L., Loudon, A. S., & Ray, D. W. (2013). Pin1 promotes GR transactivation by enhancing recruitment to target genes. Nucleic acids research., 41(18), 8515-8525. DOI:10.1093/nar/gkt624. Publication link: 1c918817-dfc4-41fb-bc52-d9b3e6ebefda | PubMed:23887939
  • Ray, D., Movahedi, M., Lunt, M., & Dixon, W. (2013). Oral glucocorticoids and the risk of incident type II diabetes mellitus in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, a retrospective cohort study. Pharmacoepidemiology and drug safety, 22, 362-362. . Publication link: f90ea4ca-3714-4812-a94d-8df684c86f3f
  • Schlossmacher, G., Matthews, L., Sommer, P., Singh, D., White, A., & Ray, D. (2013). Oral glucocorticoids and the risk of incident type ii diabetes mellitus in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Print), 52, 80-81. . Publication link: 7c33fb74-f3e0-441c-bf0d-1cded37c1704 | PubMed:21984896
  • Trump, R. P., Bresciani, S., Cooper, A. W. J., Tellam, J. P., Wojno, J., Blaikley, J., ... Tomkinson, N. C. O. (2013). Optimized chemical probes for REV-ERBα. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 56(11), 4729-4737. DOI:10.1021/jm400458q. Publication link: f19948bd-1f8f-43b6-b22f-9e2351258e4a | PubMed:23656296


  • Dixon, W. G., Abrahamowicz, M., Beauchamp, M. E., Ray, D. W., Bernatsky, S., Suissa, S., & Sylvestre, M. P. (2012). Immediate and delayed impact of oral glucocorticoid therapy on risk of serious infection in older patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A nested case-control analysis. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 71(7), 1128-1133. DOI:10.1136/annrheumdis-2011-200702. Publication link: 645c5225-c69f-4201-b224-7df59a01e058 | PubMed:22241902
  • Gibbs, J. E., Blaikley, J., Beesley, S., Matthews, L., Simpson, K. D., Boyce, S. H., ... Loudon, A. S. I. (2012). The nuclear receptor REV-ERBα mediates circadian regulation of innate immunity through selective regulation of inflammatory cytokines. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(2), 582-587. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1106750109. Publication link: 071f4988-8602-46e0-b8ed-59dbd97aea59 | PubMed:22184247
  • Kaur, M., Smyth, L. J. C., Cadden, P., Grundy, S., Ray, D., Plumb, J., & Singh, D. (2012). T lymphocyte insensitivity to corticosteroids in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respiratory Research, 13, [20]. DOI:10.1186/1465-9921-13-20. Publication link: d90a0c8d-606e-405a-b452-7031991c91dc | PubMed:22417244
  • Perogamvros, I., Ray, D. W., & Trainer, P. J. (2012). Regulation of cortisol bioavailability - Effects on hormone measurement and action. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 8(12), 717-727. DOI:10.1038/nrendo.2012.134. Publication link: 734cc8ed-fed5-4c07-9373-36d68d973631
  • Pierce, A., Williamson, A., Jaworska, E., Griffiths, J. R., Taylor, S., Walker, M., ... Whetton, A. D. (2012). Identification of nuclear protein targets for six leukemogenic tyrosine kinases governed by post-translational regulation. PLoS ONE, 7(6), [e38928]. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0038928. Publication link: 25fb74b1-8327-4312-93b0-d2236624a963 | PubMed:22745689
  • Ray, D., Duru, N., van, D. G. M. C., Jacobs, J. W., Andrews, T., Boers, M., ... Bijlsma, J. W. (2012). EULAR evidence-based recommendations on the management of medium to high dose systemic glucocorticoid therapy in rheumatic diseases. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 71, 54-54. . Publication link: 3cf9e029-3f15-4364-928f-66a0babe4875
  • Ray, D., Plumb, J., Gaffey, K., Kane, B., Malia-Milanes, B., Shah, R., ... Singh, D. (2012). Reduced glucocorticoid receptor expression and function in airway neutrophils. International Immunopharmacology, 12(1), 26-33. DOI:10.1016/j.intimp.2011.10.006. Publication link: c64fbb24-bff8-4479-9331-73339688371c | PubMed:22032841
  • Yang, N., Ray, D. W., & Matthews, L. C. (2012). Current concepts in glucocorticoid resistance. Steroids, 77(11), 1041-1049. DOI:10.1016/j.steroids.2012.05.007. Publication link: 70376ded-ef25-46c5-98f8-0d8457810a10



  • Berry, A., Matthews, L., Jangani, M., Plumb, J., Farrow, S., Buchan, N., ... Donn, R. P. (2010). Interferon-inducible factor 16 is a novel modulator of glucocorticoid action. FASEB Journal, 24(6), 1700-1713. DOI:10.1096/fj.09-139998. Publication link: 55286855-5c2b-4db0-bab5-e642e872e8df | PubMed:20086048
  • Elsby, L. M., Orozco, G., Denton, J., Worthington, J., Ray, D. W., & Donn, R. P. (2010). Functional evaluation of TNFAIP3 (A20) in rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology, 28(5), 708-714. . Publication link: f2e20aae-97da-496a-934a-992f4eae3599 | PubMed:20822710
  • Perogamvros, I., Keevil, B. G., Ray, D. W., & Trainer, P. J. (2010). Salivary cortisone is a potential biomarker for serum free cortisol. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 95(11), 4951-4958. DOI:10.1210/jc.2010-1215. Publication link: bf33d4de-e634-40ec-9815-d8a657514548 | PubMed:20685855
  • Perogamvros, I., Underhill, C., Henley, D. E., Hadfield, K. D., Newman, W. G., Ray, D. W., ... Trainer, P. J. (2010). Novel corticosteroid-binding globulin variant that lacks steroid binding activity. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 95(10), E142-E150. DOI:10.1210/jc.2010-0746. Publication link: 84fafa35-f518-4fe3-9e3f-fb2f202b737a | PubMed:20610591
  • Sommer, P., Cowen, R. L., Berry, A., Cookson, A., Telfer, B. A., Williams, K. J., ... Ray, D. W. (2010). Glucocorticoid receptor over-expression promotes human small cell lung cancer apoptosis in vivo and thereby slows tumor growth. Endocrine-Related Cancer, 17(1), 203-213. DOI:10.1677/ERC-09-0241. Publication link: 13408caf-f50a-4203-9141-581f50c0ede1 | PubMed:20015838
  • Trebble, P., Matthews, L., Blaikley, J., Wayte, A. W. O., Black, G. C. M., Wilton, A., & Ray, D. W. (2010). Familial glucocorticoid resistance caused by a novel frameshift glucocorticoid receptor mutation. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 95(12), E490-E499. DOI:10.1210/jc.2010-0705. Publication link: c4736e0e-4ba8-4cde-9ed7-e01a5ef1a4e4 | PubMed:20861124
  • Ray, D. W. (2010). Ectopic hormone syndromes. In Endocrinology (6th edition). (pp. 2787-2801). Publication link: 4a9ca76c-879b-4126-b882-29179a427ac1
  • Ray, D. W., Barr, S. A., Brass, A. M., McKervey, M. A., & Miel, H. J. P. (2010). Patent No. 7,763,596.. Publication link: 010ec06d-5763-4f51-a8ec-4b34f4c96288


  • Davies, K. A., Silman, A. J., Macfarlane, G. J., Nicholl, B. I., Dickens, C., Morriss, R., ... McBeth, J. (2009). The association between neighbourhood socio-economic status and the onset of chronic widespread pain: Results from the EPIFUND study. European Journal of Pain, 13(6), 635-640. DOI:10.1016/j.ejpain.2008.07.003. Publication link: ccae7089-f34e-435d-9575-059e73e594c7
  • Elsby, L., Donn, R., Alourfi, Z., Green, L., Beaulieu, E., & Ray, D. (2009). Hypoxia and glucocorticoid signaling converge to regulate macrophage migration inhibitory factor gene expression. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 60(8), 2220-2231. DOI:10.1002/art.24659. Publication link: 72146463-7a39-4489-8704-9b6dca0ed6f1 | PubMed:19644855
  • Gibbs, J. E., Beesley, S., Plumb, J., Singh, D., Farrow, S., Ray, D. W., & Loudon, A. S. I. (2009). Circadian timing in the lung; A specific role for bronchiolar epithelial cells. Endocrinology, 150(1), 268-276. DOI:10.1210/en.2008-0638. Publication link: 5d2d4965-c4c3-4100-b7d9-01ddc9f075d5 | PubMed:18787022
  • Kent, L. M., Smyth, L. J. C., Plumb, J., Clayton, C. L., Fox, S. M., Ray, D. W., ... Singh, D. (2009). Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease macrophage inflammatory gene expression by dexamethasone and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor N-cyano-N′-(2-{[8-(2,6- difluorophenyl)-4-(4-fluoro-2-methylphenyl)-7-oxo-7,8-dihydropyrido[2,3-d] pyrimidin-2-yl]amino}ethyl)guanidine (SB706504). Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 328(2), 458-468. DOI:10.1124/jpet.108.142950. Publication link: 2df7672d-17f1-4f72-b3fd-b8db52ecc00d
  • Matthews, L., Berry, A., Tersigni, M., D'Acquisto, F., Ianaro, A., & Ray, D. (2009). Thiazolidinediones are partial agonists for the glucocorticoid receptor. Endocrinology, 150(1), 75-86. DOI:10.1210/en.2008-0196. Publication link: fb9dfb35-788b-48dc-9ad6-f9c0f624fd3f | PubMed:18801908
  • Perogamvros, I., Owen, L. J., Newell-Price, J., Ray, D. W., Trainer, P. J., & Keevil, B. G. (2009). Simultaneous measurement of cortisol and cortisone in human saliva using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: Application in basal and stimulated conditions. Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, 877(29), 3771-3775. DOI:10.1016/j.jchromb.2009.09.014. Publication link: 019b55d4-46f3-40d5-a7a0-5063968228b6 | PubMed:19783236
  • Rivers, C., Flynn, A., Qian, X., Matthews, L., Lightman, S., Ray, D., & Norman, M. (2009). Characterization of conserved tandem donor sites and intronic motifs required for alternative splicing in corticosteroid receptor genes. Endocrinology, 150(11), 4958-4967. DOI:10.1210/en.2009-0346. Publication link: 17510b70-f20e-4df1-924c-796fd864fecc


  • Churchill, A. J., Carter, J. G., Ramsden, C., Turner, S. J., Yeung, A., Brenchley, P. E. C., & Ray, D. W. (2008). VEGF polymorphisms are associated with severity of diabetic retinopathy. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 49(8), 3611-3616. DOI:10.1167/iovs.07-1383. Publication link: d246e80e-2cf0-416e-9d88-8dd36c677b04
  • Davies, K. A., Macfarlane, G. J., Nicholl, B. I., Dickens, C., Morriss, R., Ray, D., & McBeth, J. (2008). Restorative sleep predicts the resolution of chronic widespread pain: Results from the EPIFUND study. Rheumatology, 47(12), 1809-1813. DOI:10.1093/rheumatology/ken389. Publication link: bacb6b6f-2ac3-4a09-a756-0d1b25c5a875
  • Kayahara, M., Ohanian, J., Ohanian, V., Berry, A., Vadlamudi, R., & Ray, D. W. (2008). MNAR functionally interacts with both NH2- and COOH-terminal GR domains to modulate transactivation. American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism, 295(5), E1047-E1055. DOI:10.1152/ajpendo.90429.2008. Publication link: a5b37a43-9e75-4164-827d-e2120c98bc59
  • Kudrin, A., & Ray, D. (2008). Cunning factor: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor as a redox-regulated target. Immunology and Cell Biology, 86(3), 232-238. DOI:10.1038/sj.icb.7100133. Publication link: 8405ae14-bf0f-499c-85e2-194c2b8a8523
  • Lavery, G. G., Walker, E. A., Tiganescu, A., Ride, J. P., Shackleton, C. H. L., Tomlinson, J. W., ... Stewart, P. M. (2008). Steroid biomarkers and genetic studies reveal inactivating mutations in hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in patients with cortisone reductase deficiency. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 93(10), 3827-3832. DOI:10.1210/jc.2008-0743. Publication link: c997f8ef-13ff-4821-9861-34e06cb4da1b
  • Matthews, L., Berry, A., Ohanian, V., Ohanian, J., Garside, H., & Ray, D. (2008). Caveolin mediates rapid glucocorticoid effects and couples glucocorticoid action to the antiproliferative program. Molecular Endocrinology, 22(6), 1320-1330. DOI:10.1210/me.2007-0154. Publication link: 87e75a0d-a26d-43bd-a582-87504d257ab6
  • McMaster, A., & Ray, D. W. (2008). Drug Insight: Selective agonists and antagonists of the glucocorticoid receptor. Nature Clinical Practice Endocrinology and Metabolism, 4(2), 91-101. DOI:10.1038/ncpendmet0745. Publication link: 23cee673-9dc5-480a-8c07-89aa25bf6965
  • McMaster, A., & Ray, D. W. (2008). Glucocorticoid receptor modulators in inflammation and oncology. Drugs of the Future, 33(9), 753-761. DOI:10.1358/dof.2008.033.09.1248348. Publication link: 339c5a45-5796-4871-b3c8-22b52f86449c
  • Mcmaster, A., Chambers, T., Meng, Q-J., Grundy, S., Loudon, A., Donn, R., & Ray, D. (2008). Real-time analysis of gene regulation by glucocorticoid hormones. Journal of Endocrinology, 197(2), 205-211. DOI:10.1677/JOE-07-0639. Publication link: a078db30-51b9-4737-af3e-119e18641f44 | PubMed:18434350
  • Meng, Q. J., McMaster, A., Beesley, S., Lu, W. Q., Gibbs, J., Parks, D., ... Loudon, A. (2008). Ligand modulation of REV-ERBα function resets the peripheral circadian clock in a phasic manner. Journal of Cell Science, 121(21), 3629-3635. DOI:10.1242/jcs.035048. Publication link: ce96e4db-ac8e-4386-b0b4-48b0cb6c71d8 | PubMed:18946026
  • Rice, L., Waters, C. E., Eccles, J., Garside, H., Sommer, P., Kay, P., ... Ray, D. W. (2008). Identification and functional analysis of SKA2 interaction with the glucocorticoid receptor. Journal of Endocrinology, 198(3), 499-509. DOI:10.1677/JOE-08-0019. Publication link: 92e14224-3a0e-4a79-af70-01b602e6b544 | PubMed:18583474
  • Sommer, P., & Ray, D. W. (2008). Novel therapeutic agents targeting the glucocorticoid receptor for inflammation and cancer. Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs, 9(10), 1070-1077. . Publication link: 521421cd-2de2-4557-833b-a38a92b9f74a
  • Ray, D. W. (2008). Paraneoplastic syndromes. In Clinical Endocrinology (2nd Edition). (pp. 549-556). Publication link: 5411ed80-8da9-4eff-94f9-83976b2dc15b


  • Berry, A., Donn, R. P., Stevens, A., Farrow, S., Betts, J., Stevens, R., ... Ray, D. W. (2007). Use of gene expression profiling to identify a novel glucocorticoid sensitivity determining gene, BMPRII.The F A S E B Journal, 21, 402-414. . Publication link: f802edd7-4189-40ce-93b0-65703a0058de | PubMed:17185747
  • Donn, R., Payne, D., & Ray, D. (2007). Glucocorticoid receptor gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical Endocrinology, 67(3), 342-345. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2007.02887.x. Publication link: 065a5894-5440-4cd5-9b29-1a5e7c2f0a57
  • Gupta, A., Silman, A. J., Ray, D., Morriss, R., Dickens, C., MacFarlane, G. J., ... McBeth, J. (2007). The role of psychosocial factors in predicting the onset of chronic widespread pain: Results from a prospective population-based study. Rheumatology, 46(4), 666-671. DOI:10.1093/rheumatology/kel363. Publication link: f36260a7-7b28-49c0-af4d-5cf234f1af17
  • McBeth, J., Silman, A. J., Gupta, A., Chiu, Y. H., Ray, D., Morriss, R., ... Macfarlane, G. J. (2007). Moderation of psychosocial risk factors through dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis in the onset of chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain: Findings of a population-based prospective cohort study. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 56(1), 360-371. DOI:10.1002/art.22336. Publication link: d74e4626-d3ff-4210-a3c6-494283ab28b2
  • McMaster, A., & Ray, D. W. (2007). Modelling the glucocorticoid receptor and producing therapeutic agents with anti-inflammatory effects but reduced side-effects. Experimental Physiology, 92(2), 299-309. DOI:10.1113/expphysiol.2006.036194. Publication link: ad62498a-81bf-4132-bb4d-d88910117748
  • Perveen, R., Favor, J., Jamieson, R. V., Ray, D. W., & Black, G. C. M. (2007). A heterozygous c-Maf transactivation domain mutation causes congenital cataract and enhances target gene activation. Human Molecular Genetics, 16(9), 1030-1038. DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddm048. Publication link: 857f1519-e17a-4d65-839e-fa27dc60f248
  • Sommer, P., Le Rouzic, P., Gillingham, H., Berry, A., Kayahara, M., Huynh, T., ... Ray, D. W. (2007). Glucocorticoid receptor overexpression exerts an antisurvival effect on human small cell lung cancer cells. Oncogene, 26(50), 7111-7121. DOI:10.1038/sj.onc.1210524. Publication link: 70aa08f1-3c5f-4e57-9a5a-795b93c7b10d
  • Ray, D. W., & Donn, R. P. (2007). MIF alleles in inflammatory arthritis. In host publication.. Publication link: 5dedada1-2891-470d-a582-f4d2bcb80c16



  • Chiu, Y. H., Silman, A. J., Macfarlane, G. J., Ray, D., Gupta, A., Dickens, C., ... McBeth, J. (2005). Poor sleep and depression are independently associated with a reduced pain threshold. Results of a population based study. Pain, 115(3), 316-321. DOI:10.1016/j.pain.2005.03.009. Publication link: 0d8420e2-2c01-4875-87c9-73e5fc4db57e
  • McBeth, J., Chiu, Y. H., Silman, A. J., Ray, D., Morriss, R., Dickens, C., ... Macfarlane, G. J. (2005). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis function and the relationship with chronic widespread pain and its antecedents.Arthritis Research and Therapy, 7(5), R992-R1000. DOI:10.1186/ar1772. Publication link: cd501184-dca5-4a93-aa09-8efbc277ec79
  • Mcmaster, A., Alourfi, Z., Donn, R. P., Stevens, A., Berry, A., McMaster, A., & Ray, D. W. (2005). Glucocorticoids suppress macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) expression in a cell-type-specific manner. Journal of molecular endocrinology, 34(2), 583-595. DOI:10.1677/jme.1.01647. Publication link: caad15e8-daf6-48e6-b745-ae552122bab6
  • Mishra, M., Durrington, P., Mackness, M., Siddals, K. W., Kaushal, K., Davies, R., ... Ray, D. W. (2005). The effect of atorvastatin on serum lipoproteins in acromegaly. Clinical Endocrinology, 62(6), 650-655. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2005.02273.x. Publication link: 94d4716b-dda3-47bb-9f22-39373fa23b9f
  • Nardo, L. G., Ray, D. W., Laing, I., Williams, C., McVey, R. J., & Seif, M. W. (2005). Ovarian Leydig cell tumor in a peri-menopausal woman with severe hyperandrogenism and virilization. Gynecological Endocrinology, 21(4), 238-241. DOI:10.1080/09513590500369005. Publication link: 94b76e9c-43b3-4b85-b840-9ed001583587
  • Newman, W. G., Payne, K., Poulton, K., Andrews, J., Houston, B., Elliott, R. A., ... Ollier, W. E. R. (2005). The TARGET (TPMT: Azathioprine Response to Genotyping and Enzyme Testing) study. BMJ Rapid response, Feb 28. . Publication link: 2e97a46d-b56f-4d4b-b456-1520e99b1cc6
  • Richards, H., Richards, H. L., Ray, D. W., Kirby, B., Mason, D., Plant, D., ... Griffiths, C. E. M. (2005). Response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to psychological stress in patients with psoriasis. British Journal of Dermatology, 153(6), 1114-1120. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2133.2005.06817.x. Publication link: 04c4b2ae-a017-48b6-b7f4-447bf75ddb71
  • Ray, D. W. (2005). Ectopic hormone syndromes. In Endocrinology. Philadelphia, USA: WB Sounders Company. . Publication link: 806e2dc2-1105-448a-95b1-bf71506c7658
  • Ray, D. W., & Davis, J. R. E. (2005). Molecular and cellular biology. In Textbook of Clinical Science. Oxford University Press. . Publication link: 288bcd89-ee89-4530-849e-3ba255b6830f
  • Payne, K., Fargher, E. A., Tricker, K., Newman, W. G., Qasim, F. F., Poulton, K., ... Olier, W. E. R. (2005). Research Governance: What is reasonable protection?. BMJ Rapid Response. . Publication link: 4d5e6536-3b55-4349-8e15-e246d4049646


  • Donn, R. P., & Ray, D. W. (2004). Macrophage migration inhibitory factor: Molecular, cellular and genetic aspects of a key neuroendocrine molecule. Journal of Endocrinology, 182(1), 1-9. DOI:10.1677/joe.0.1820001. Publication link: 2b10332c-fa64-4119-8fd3-e04dbeabd95c
  • Donn, R. P., Plant, D., Jury, F., Richards, H. L., Worthington, J., Ray, D. W., & Griffiths, C. E. M. (2004). Macrophage migration inhibitory factor gene polymorphism is associated with psoriasis. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 123(3), 484-487. DOI:10.1111/j.0022-202X.2004.23314.x. Publication link: 8d9c9292-752a-4120-8621-52de67b85fb0
  • Donn, R., Alourfi, Z., Zeggini, E., Lamb, R., Jury, F., Lunt, M., ... Wyatt, S. (2004). A Functional Promoter Haplotype of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Is Linked and Associated with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 50(5), 1604-1610. DOI:10.1002/art.20178. Publication link: 60a3a413-632c-4d72-a8d0-108e68007a10 | PubMed:15146431
  • Garside, H., Stevens, A., Farrow, S., Normand, C., Houle, B., Berry, A., ... Ray, D. (2004). Glucocorticoid ligands specify different interactions with NF-κB by allosteric effects on the glucocorticoid receptor DNA binding domain. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 279(48), 50050-50059. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M407309200. Publication link: 23006205-9e87-4e7d-8194-ea66c36b6ce7 | PubMed:15355994
  • Ray, D. W., Stevens, A., & Donn, R. P. (2004). Glucocorticoid receptor gamma expression is not regulated by genotype, or glucocorticoid. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 61, 327-331. . Publication link: f0cd12e5-f07d-433b-9f40-fab3cb1df5d1
  • Ray, D., Mishra, M., Ralph, S., Read, I., Davies, R., & Brenchley, P. (2004). Association of the VEGF Gene with Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy but Not Proteinuria in Diabetes. Diabetes, 53(3), 861-864. DOI:10.2337/diabetes.53.3.861. Publication link: 6279e655-31b4-437e-9b62-fc112dde91e8
  • Stevens, A., Ray, D. W., Zeggini, E., John, S., Richards, H. L., Griffiths, C. E. M., & Donn, R. (2004). Glucocorticoid Sensitivity Is Determined by a Specific Glucocorticoid Receptor Haplotype. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 89(2), 892-897. DOI:10.1210/jc.2003-031235. Publication link: 79df8134-798c-4f87-9a9f-bfd8dcf5b52e | PubMed:14764810
  • Waters, C. E., Stevens, A., White, A., & Ray, D. W. (2004). Analysis of co-factor function in a glucocorticoid-resistant small cell carcinoma cell line. Journal of Endocrinology, 183(2), 375-383. DOI:10.1677/joe.1.05804. Publication link: e1040be3-132a-42e9-b112-a35de675b269
  • Ray, D. W., Barr, A. S., Mckervey, M. A., Miel, H. J., & Brass, A. M. (2004). Patent No. 20,040,102,425.. Publication link: b91e3c16-56e9-46d5-8284-727b915e6fc9


  • Draper, N., Walker, E. A., Bujalska, I. J., Tomlinson, J. W., Chalder, S. M., Arlt, W., ... Stewart, P. M. (2003). Mutations in the genes encoding 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase interact to cause cortisone reductase deficiency. Nature Genetics, 34(4), 434-439. DOI:10.1038/ng1214. Publication link: 2622633d-d93c-41d0-895d-e30a4a4157e9
  • Nelson, G., Wilde, G. J. C., Spiller, D. G., Kennedy, S. M., Ray, D. W., Sullivan, E., ... White, M. R. H. (2003). NF-κB signalling is inhibited by glucocorticoid receptor and STAT6 via distinct mechanisms. Journal of Cell Science, 116(12), 2495-2503. DOI:10.1242/jcs.00461. Publication link: 1c965f3a-4f06-433f-a174-5e683b22da0f
  • Ray, D. W., Liew, Y. Y., & Docter, E. (2003). Graeb C, Justl M, Tange S, et al, entitled “An Adenoviral Gene Transfer System to Express High Levels of Soluble Allogeneic MHC Class 1 Molecules In Vitro and In Vivo”(Transplant Proc 34: 2318, 2002). Transplantation Proceedings, 35, 883-883. . Publication link: bbbff55c-1037-4376-95dd-e4643c85dcf7
  • Stevens, A., Garside, H., Berry, A., Waters, C., White, A., & Ray, D. (2003). Dissociation of steroid receptor coactivator 1 and nuclear receptor corepressor recruitment to the human glucocorticoid receptor by modification of the ligand-receptor interface: The role of tyrosine 735. Molecular Endocrinology, 17(5), 845-859. DOI:10.1210/me.2002-0320. Publication link: 35965b02-4b31-4391-8029-827f8bf05492 | PubMed:12569182
  • Stevens, A., Soden, J., Brenchley, P. E., Ralph, S., & Ray, D. W. (2003). Haplotype analysis of the polymorphic human vascular endothelial growth factor gene promoter. Cancer Research, 63(4), 812-816. . Publication link: df27c42f-e323-401f-898e-19717823265c


  • Huynh, T. T., Ray, D. W., Brogan, I. J., Stevens, A., Davis, J. R. E., & White, A. (2002). Failure of steroid regulation of the MMTV promoter in a small cell lung cancer cell line is caused by a DNA sequence flanking the glucocorticoid response element. Journal of Endocrinology, 172(2), 295-302. DOI:10.1677/joe.0.1720295. Publication link: 5cd874dc-605e-4c17-bdd1-f402ecb73f7f
  • Liew, Y. Y., Docter, E., Ray, D. W., Hutchinson, I. V., & Brogan, I. J. (2002). Effect of rapamycin and prednisolone in differentiated THP-1 and U937 cells. Transplantation Proceedings, 34(7), 2872-2873. DOI:10.1016/S0041-1345(02)03540-6. Publication link: 81cd6dd2-46cd-4f89-a2d0-ea100dd42cac
  • Ray, D. (2002). No title. Rheumatology (Print), 41, 52-52. . Publication link: d313b403-9ed0-4483-aef8-7df468aec992
  • Saccò, M., Valenti, G., Corvi Mora, P., Wu, F. C., & Ray, D. W. (2002). DHEA, a selective glucocorticoid receptor antagonist: its role in immune system regulation and metabolism.Journal of endocrinological investigation, 25(10), 81-82. . Publication link: 478323a0-ffd9-4ffb-9e46-264294f4be47
  • Soden, J., Stevens, A., & Ray, D. W. (2002). Genetic engineering of the glucocorticoid receptor by fusion with the herpes viral protein VP22 causes selective loss of transactivation. Journal of Endocrinology, 172(3), 615-625. DOI:10.1677/joe.0.1720615. Publication link: 536c2b62-39b3-46f0-b925-59d48178cd24
  • Ray, D. W., Tobias, E., O’Donoghue, D. J., Rees, G., Moore, C. E. G., Zoha, M., & Hopkins, R. S. (2002). MRCP 1 Pocket Book 2, Basic Sciences, Neurology and Psychiatry. Knutsford, Cheshire: Pastest.. Publication link: b6d0bd05-0316-48a0-8017-8e648c8071b6
  • Davis, J. R. E., White, A., & Ray, D. W. (2002). Ectopic pituitary hormone production. In Genetics in Endocrinology.. Publication link: ac4a1b62-76c1-4731-b423-3d03a569ffd3
  • Ray, D. (2002). ACTH precursors in different pathological conditions. In The ACTH axis: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment. Kluwer Academic Publ. . Publication link: 01247848-f829-48d2-b7b3-0595e1cfd138
  • Ray, D. W. (2002). Ectopic hormone syndromes. In Oxford Textbook of Endocrinology. Oxford University Press. . Publication link: 9b764711-06f9-4b30-811d-c34056ab436c



  • Ellison, J. A., Patel, L., Ray, D. W., David, T. J., & Clayton, P. E. (2000). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and glucocorticoid sensitivity in atopic dermatitis. Pediatrics, 105(4 I), 794-799. . Publication link: 286817f0-6207-45f3-8cd1-278ec07de52a | PubMed:10742322
  • White, A., Ray, D. W., Talbot, A., Abraham, P., Thody, A., & Bevan, J. (2000). Cushing's syndrome due to phaeochromocytoma secreting the precursors of adrenocorticotropin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 85(12), 4771-4775. . Publication link: 36301231-bfbe-49ac-b1a4-5af820a309c3
  • Ray, D. W., & White, A. (2000). Adrenocorticotrophic hormone. In Endocrinology (4th)edition, section on neuroendocrinology.. Publication link: 63604d71-aceb-4eb9-b8f9-b0d96d2a58ea


  • Davis, J. R. E., Ray, D. W., & Reem, G. (1999). Coordinated regulation of human prolactin gene transcription by immunophilins and cAMP. J Mol Endocrinol, 22, 285-293. . Publication link: 1a13c643-e09c-47e4-b47d-d4345d08d327
  • Ray, D. W., Suen, C. S., Brass, A., Soden, J., & White, A. (1999). Structure/function of the human glucocorticoid receptor: Tyrosine 735 is important for transactivation. Molecular Endocrinology, 13(11), 1855-1863. . Publication link: 71814ce5-6245-4126-8550-8ec85fd3295a
  • Schwartz, J., David W, R., & Perez, F. M. (1999). Leukemia inhibitory factor as an intrapituitary mediator of ACTH secretion. Neuroendocrinology, 69(1), 34-43. DOI:10.1159/000054401. Publication link: 2af47ddd-5b36-49bc-b7a5-f0e2d5ebda6a



  • Bousquet, C., Ray, D. W., & Melmed, S. (1997). A common Pro-opiomelanocortin-binding element mediates leukemia inhibitory factor and corticotropin-releasing hormone transcriptional synergy. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 272(16), 10551-10557. DOI:10.1074/jbc.272.16.10551. Publication link: f4bea7f3-7c80-4581-a1fe-1bcb4cd1c007
  • Ray, D. W., & Melmed, S. (1997). Pituitary cytokine and growth factor expression and action: a review. Endocrine Reviews, 18, 206-228. . Publication link: c9df5869-ce37-4dcf-9910-e02ff90f9159
  • Shimon, I., Yan, X., Ray, D. W., & Melmed, S. (1997). Cytokine-dependent gp130 receptor subunit regulates human fetal pituitary adrenocorticotropin hormone and growth hormone secretion. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 100(2), 357-363. DOI:10.1172/JCI119541. Publication link: 5a917fed-d7fd-44c0-8617-668ec2b99033


  • Davis, J. R. E., Ray, D. W., Clark, A. J. L., & White, A. (1996). Glucocorticoid signalling in the ectopic ACTH syndrome-towards a molecular understanding. Q J Med, 89, 867-868. . Publication link: 8ae7485e-8587-4be0-abc1-b6e628463e5f
  • Gibson, S., Ray, D. W., Crosby, S. R., Dornan, T. L., Jennings, A. M., Bevan, J. S., ... White, A. (1996). Impaired processing of proopiomelanocortin in corticotroph macroadenomas. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 81(2), 497-502. DOI:10.1210/jc.81.2.497. Publication link: a97470af-a82c-4ebd-8c89-7f44ad8b32c1
  • Ray, D. W. (1996). Glucocorticoid resistance: molecular insights. Endocrine News, 21, 7. . Publication link: 3e25e2c7-658f-459f-8dbb-fe82cbea8d19
  • Ray, D. W. (1996). Molecular mechanisms of glucocorticoid resistance.J Endocrinol, 149, 1-5. . Publication link: 74a2acc6-6887-4916-b17a-857634100f07
  • Ray, D. W., & Melmed, S. (1996). Regulation of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene transcription by leukaemia inhibitory factor: molecular mechanism for a neuro-immuno-endocrine interface. J Invest Med, 44, 266. . Publication link: ea1e588d-0223-4258-92b3-9d5d5b568a3b
  • Ray, D. W., Davis, J. R. E., White, A., & Clark, A. J. L. (1996). Glucocorticoid receptor structure and function in glucocorticoid- resistant small cell lung carcinoma cells. Cancer Research, 56(14), 3276-3280. . Publication link: 4d4a87c7-b59a-44ce-9651-9c8ca1897e92
  • Ray, D. W., Ren, S. G., & Melmed, S. (1996). Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) stimulates proopiomelanocortin (POMC) expression in a corticotroph cell line: Role of STAT pathway. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 97(8), 1852-1859. DOI:10.1172/JCI118615. Publication link: cb458d53-8869-40f4-819f-9daf7cf7f4a0
  • Stefana, B., Ray, D. W., & Melmed, S. (1996). Leukemia inhibitory factor induces differentiation of pituitary corticotroph function: An immuno-neuroendocrine phenotypic switch. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 93(22), 12502-12506. DOI:10.1073/pnas.93.22.12502. Publication link: 60e4bd25-52b4-496d-afd1-fcbab57f882e


  • Ray, D. W., Gibson, S., Crosby, S. R., Davies, D., Davis, J. R. E., & White, A. (1995). Elevated levels of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) precursors in post-adrenalectomy Cushing's disease and their regulation by glucocorticoids. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 80(8), 2430-2436. . Publication link: 3397bd87-d100-42dc-8fa9-61ecc5b6742e


  • Ray, D. W., Littlewood, A. C., Clark, A. J. L., Davis, J. R. E., & White, A. (1994). Human small cell lung cancer cell lines expressing the proopiomelanocortin gene have aberrant glucocorticoid receptor function. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 93(4), 1625-1630. DOI:10.1172/JCI117143. Publication link: 768ddae9-8407-475c-a3d1-9db524c21f1d
  • Ray, D. W., White, A., Gibson, S., & Crosby, S. R. (1994). Progress in measurement of ACTH and related peptides. Proc UK NEQAS Meeting, 1, 72-78. . Publication link: b6afe596-7594-492e-aecd-f470625aaafb


  • Ray, D. W., & Williams, G. (1993). Flushing: Pathophysiological causes and clinical significance. British Journal of Hospital Medicine, 50, 594-598. . Publication link: 28c3fc18-b6c4-4ebf-8c16-9e417f34a8f9
  • Ray, D. W., Bridger, J., Hawnaur, J., Waldek, S., Bernstein, R. M., & Dornan, T. L. (1993). Transverse myelitis as the presentation of Jo-1 antibody syndrome (myositis and fibrosing alveolitis) in long-standing ulcerative colitis. British Journal of Rheumatology, 32(12), 1105-1108. . Publication link: 441cca15-a075-4922-9a7d-7d952d35b525